How do you teach someone to cook?

Question: What is the joy in what you do?

Lidia Bastianich: There’s a tremendous joy in what I do because it is a gift of giving. And it’s a gift of giving almost of yourself or your talent. But I think that any talented individual – be it a composer, be it a painter – they are giving of themselves to touch other people. And when the other people are touched, this is the most tremendous reward that you can get; that you’ve made a difference, even a small difference; that you’ve contributed to somebody’s existence – the well existence. That gives you the great reward that I sense in cooking.

Question: What is the struggle in what you do?

Lidia Bastianich: The challenge is, I think, really dealing in today’s world with the products that have been manipulated.  And products that are taken in its pure form from nature and belabored into something that is invented . . . that is by marketing deemed necessary that really is not.  So as a chef, when I get these products I am very upset.  It confuses me.  I need straight products from nature.

Question: How do you cultivate the joy of cooking in someone else?

Lidia Bastianich: The joy of cooking certainly can be acquired at any age, I think.  Because your palate does not steer you wrong.  It does not lie to you. Something looks good, it really is good.  And it’s sort of . . . It’s beyond almost . . . You can’t block it personally.  It just goes directly.  So therefore I think that exposure to that is absolutely necessary.  As parents, in cultivating that, it begins at the . . . as early as you can at an early age.  And that is having the aromas around children as they grow up.  Cooking around them so that in the house, that happens, and the children get used to the smell.  They become friendly with the smell of broccoli.  They become friendly with the smell of cabbage.  And when they begin to . . . or the mother puts it in front of them at the age of four, five, six, it’s not a complete stranger.  So this familiarization with food needs to happen immediately as one is born, not . . .  There is a lot of alienation.  Everything is packaged.  Everything is sealed.  You don’t smell anything.  You buy pre-cooked food.  It’s tough.  It’s tough out there.

Question: How do you teach someone to cook?

Lidia Bastianich:  I think just to relax and have confidence in themselves.  I think that everybody can cook on a certain level.  You don’t have to be a master chef; but I think it’s part of our survival mode, the nourishment mode.  So I will just say relax, be mentored.  Certainly try to learn things from . . . whether it’s your mother, your grandmother, whatever; from books, from television.  And just attempt it.

 

Recorded on: 10/4/07

 

 

 

Lidia Bastianich talks about cultivating the joy of cooking in someone else.

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A large new study uses an online game to inoculate people against fake news.

University of Cambridge
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Yale scientists restore brain function to 32 clinically dead pigs

Researchers hope the technology will further our understanding of the brain, but lawmakers may not be ready for the ethical challenges.

Still from John Stephenson's 1999 rendition of Animal Farm.
Surprising Science
  • Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine successfully restored some functions to pig brains that had been dead for hours.
  • They hope the technology will advance our understanding of the brain, potentially developing new treatments for debilitating diseases and disorders.
  • The research raises many ethical questions and puts to the test our current understanding of death.

The image of an undead brain coming back to live again is the stuff of science fiction. Not just any science fiction, specifically B-grade sci fi. What instantly springs to mind is the black-and-white horrors of films like Fiend Without a Face. Bad acting. Plastic monstrosities. Visible strings. And a spinal cord that, for some reason, is also a tentacle?

But like any good science fiction, it's only a matter of time before some manner of it seeps into our reality. This week's Nature published the findings of researchers who managed to restore function to pigs' brains that were clinically dead. At least, what we once thought of as dead.

What's dead may never die, it seems

The researchers did not hail from House Greyjoy — "What is dead may never die" — but came largely from the Yale School of Medicine. They connected 32 pig brains to a system called BrainEx. BrainEx is an artificial perfusion system — that is, a system that takes over the functions normally regulated by the organ. The pigs had been killed four hours earlier at a U.S. Department of Agriculture slaughterhouse; their brains completely removed from the skulls.

BrainEx pumped an experiment solution into the brain that essentially mimic blood flow. It brought oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, giving brain cells the resources to begin many normal functions. The cells began consuming and metabolizing sugars. The brains' immune systems kicked in. Neuron samples could carry an electrical signal. Some brain cells even responded to drugs.

The researchers have managed to keep some brains alive for up to 36 hours, and currently do not know if BrainEx can have sustained the brains longer. "It is conceivable we are just preventing the inevitable, and the brain won't be able to recover," said Nenad Sestan, Yale neuroscientist and the lead researcher.

As a control, other brains received either a fake solution or no solution at all. None revived brain activity and deteriorated as normal.

The researchers hope the technology can enhance our ability to study the brain and its cellular functions. One of the main avenues of such studies would be brain disorders and diseases. This could point the way to developing new of treatments for the likes of brain injuries, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and neurodegenerative conditions.

"This is an extraordinary and very promising breakthrough for neuroscience. It immediately offers a much better model for studying the human brain, which is extraordinarily important, given the vast amount of human suffering from diseases of the mind [and] brain," Nita Farahany, the bioethicists at the Duke University School of Law who wrote the study's commentary, told National Geographic.

An ethical gray matter

Before anyone gets an Island of Dr. Moreau vibe, it's worth noting that the brains did not approach neural activity anywhere near consciousness.

The BrainEx solution contained chemicals that prevented neurons from firing. To be extra cautious, the researchers also monitored the brains for any such activity and were prepared to administer an anesthetic should they have seen signs of consciousness.

Even so, the research signals a massive debate to come regarding medical ethics and our definition of death.

Most countries define death, clinically speaking, as the irreversible loss of brain or circulatory function. This definition was already at odds with some folk- and value-centric understandings, but where do we go if it becomes possible to reverse clinical death with artificial perfusion?

"This is wild," Jonathan Moreno, a bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, told the New York Times. "If ever there was an issue that merited big public deliberation on the ethics of science and medicine, this is one."

One possible consequence involves organ donations. Some European countries require emergency responders to use a process that preserves organs when they cannot resuscitate a person. They continue to pump blood throughout the body, but use a "thoracic aortic occlusion balloon" to prevent that blood from reaching the brain.

The system is already controversial because it raises concerns about what caused the patient's death. But what happens when brain death becomes readily reversible? Stuart Younger, a bioethicist at Case Western Reserve University, told Nature that if BrainEx were to become widely available, it could shrink the pool of eligible donors.

"There's a potential conflict here between the interests of potential donors — who might not even be donors — and people who are waiting for organs," he said.

It will be a while before such experiments go anywhere near human subjects. A more immediate ethical question relates to how such experiments harm animal subjects.

Ethical review boards evaluate research protocols and can reject any that causes undue pain, suffering, or distress. Since dead animals feel no pain, suffer no trauma, they are typically approved as subjects. But how do such boards make a judgement regarding the suffering of a "cellularly active" brain? The distress of a partially alive brain?

The dilemma is unprecedented.

Setting new boundaries

Another science fiction story that comes to mind when discussing this story is, of course, Frankenstein. As Farahany told National Geographic: "It is definitely has [sic] a good science-fiction element to it, and it is restoring cellular function where we previously thought impossible. But to have Frankenstein, you need some degree of consciousness, some 'there' there. [The researchers] did not recover any form of consciousness in this study, and it is still unclear if we ever could. But we are one step closer to that possibility."

She's right. The researchers undertook their research for the betterment of humanity, and we may one day reap some unimaginable medical benefits from it. The ethical questions, however, remain as unsettling as the stories they remind us of.

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