David Linden: The Brain is a 'Freaking Mess'

David Linden:  There are a lot of things that are created accidentally in evolution.  There are a lot of side effects.  So you can evolve a pleasure circuit for adaptive things so they will eat food and drink water and have sex.  And you can evolve social cognition and then you can connect up your social cognition center with your pleasure center.  And then you can take pleasure from positive social evaluation, which is something that you can imagine would promote group cohesion and in hunter/gatherer societies would be adaptive.  But then you’ve built a machine that can be operated on in all kinds of ways in terms of culture and behavior.

And we shouldn’t fall into the trap and think that all those ways are adaptive or useful just because they’ve evolved.  Evolution is a tinkerer and not an engineer as Francoise Jacob famously said.  And when you’re a tinkerer, you throw things together to solve the problem at hand.  You don’t build elegantly and you don’t build the way an engineer would build to try to consider all the possible contingencies.  You’re just solving the one problem that circumstances have dealt you at this moment.

There’s a tendency, particularly when looking at brain function to be over awed by the brain and, well, this is understandable.  We say, well, human consciousness is manifest in this two-and-a-half pounds of tissue in our skull and that’s amazing.  You say, that’s amazing, but that doesn’t mean that when you lift the hood and look at how its built, either anatomically or electrically or genetically, that what you see is well-engineered.  No.  It’s a freaking mess in there.  And it’s a freaking mess both at these biological levels and a lot of times it’s a freaking mess at the behavioral level.

We have two visual systems in our brain, a subconscious one and a conscious one.  We have two auditory systems in our brain, a subconscious one and a conscious one.  No engineer ever would have designed it like this.

And then, the information from these two streams have to be fused to create our behavior.  It’s a total kluge, it works pretty well.  Our brains are pretty impressive in what they can do.  The engineering behind it is completely insane.  It never is what anyone would have designed given the chance, with all the time in the world on a blank sheet of paper.

Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler, Elizabeth Rodd, and Dillon Fitton

 

As François Jacob famously said, evolution is a tinkerer and not an engineer. When you're a tinkerer, you throw things together to solve the problem at hand.

(Photo by David Ryder/Getty Images)
Politics & Current Affairs
  • The minimum wage debate rages on
  • The same study authors in 2017 famously argued that raising the wage to $15/hr. in Seattle and Tacoma actually cost jobs
  • This study says something else, though study authors are quick to say they don't necessarily contradict each other. Ummm ...
Keep reading Show less

Take the Big Think survey for a chance to win :)

Calling all big thinkers!

  • Tell us a little bit about where you find Big Think's videos, articles, and podcasts.
  • Be entered for a chance to win 1 of 3 Amazon gift cards each worth $100.
  • All survey information is anonymous and will be used only for this survey.
Keep reading Show less

White House slams socialism in new report

The 72-page report makes a case against modern policy proposals like "Medicare for All" and free college tuition.

(Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
Politics & Current Affairs
  • The report comes from the White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), which is run by professional economists.
  • It attempts to make direct connections between modern-day progressives and past socialist figures like Stalin and Mao.
  • The report comes in the wake of other explicitly anti-socialist sentiments expressed by the Trump administration.
Keep reading Show less