from the world's big
Nuclear-powered Mars rover to search for old life, prepare for human life
The Mars 2020 rover is set to launch in July of the same year, setting the stage for years and years of science on the Red Planet.
- NASA recently unveiled the final details of the Mars 2020 rover mission.
- As yet unnamed, the Mars 2020 rover will launch in July of that same year. It's primary mission will be to search the planet for signs of microbial life.
- However, the rover also contains instrumentation that will enable it to prepare for future human life, including a device to produce oxygen from Mars' CO2 atmosphere.
Once every 26 months or so, Earth's and Mars' elliptical, off-kilter orbits align in just the right way to bring the two planets together as closely as possible, with a mere 35.8 million miles to separate them (or 57.6 million kilometers).
That's why Mars 2020, the successor to the Curiosity Rover, is set to launch in July of 2020, when Mars is at its closest with Earth. Since its mission was first announced in 2012, the Mars 2020 rover has been designed and developed to seek out signs of ancient microbial life and even prepare Mars' inhospitable surface for future manned missions.
What will the Mars 2020 rover look like?
An engineer works on the solar-powered drone that will be affixed to the Mars 2020 rover.
For the most part, the as-yet unnamed Mars 2020 rover is based on the design of the Curiosity rover. Curiosity's original mission was only meant to last for two years, and yet the rover has been functioning and conducting science for more than seven years now. Re-using this robust design helps to cut down costs and risks for the Mars 2020 rover.
"It's designed to seek the signs of life, so we're carrying a number of different instruments that will help us understand the geological and chemical context on the surface of Mars," deputy mission leader Matt Wallace told AFP.
Mars 2020 will carry 10 different instruments, including 23 cameras, microphones to listen to the rover's performance and identify any possible mechanical issues, an X-ray spectrometer, radar, a solar-powered drone, and more.
Like Curiosity, these instruments will be powered by a miniature nuclear reactor in the Mars 2020 rover, but the new rover will have more durable wheels (you may remember occasional news articles bemoaning holes and dents in Curiosity's wheels). Mars 2020 will also include an improved landing system, dubbed Terrain-Relative Navigation (TRN). This system will help the rover detect and avoid hazardous terrain during its descent and enable it to land within 130-foot area compared to Curiosity's 53.4-mile landing area.
Searching for ancient life
This map shows Jezero crater, where Mars 2020 will touch down, as well as the landing sites of all other spacecraft to visit Mars.
This ability to precisely choose a landing spot is critical to Mars 2020's primary goal, which is to search for signs of ancient microbial life. When searching for microfossils on a barren planet whose surface is exposed to cosmic rays and the elements, location is key. That's why Mars 2020 will touch down in the Jezero crater, an 820-foot crater that used to be a lake 3.5 to 3.9 billion years ago.
Because a river delta used to flow through the ancient lake, a significant amount of sediment has collected within the crater. Specifically, NASA researchers hope to find hydrated silica, a crystalline mineral that has preserved signs of life on Earth for billions of years, hopefully having done the same on Mars.
Using a drill to gather cored samples of this material, Mars 2020 will then set aside caches on the surface of Mars. Future missions will collect these caches and deliver them back to Earth, where researchers will be able to analyze the samples in lab equipment too bulky to transport to the Red Planet.
"We are hoping to move fairly quickly. We'd like to see the next mission launched in 2026, which will get to Mars and pick up the samples, put them into a rocket and propel that sample into orbit around Mars," said Wallace.
"The sample would then rendezvous with an orbiter and the orbiter would bring the sample back to the Earth."
Preparing for new life
The other major thrust of Mars 2020's mission will be to pave the way for future human missions and study Mars' potential for habitability. The entry, descent, and landing of the rover will be carefully studied to improve future touchdowns, and the rover's many sensors will work toward understanding the environmental conditions that astronauts will face when living and working on Mars.
Excitingly, the rover will also include a device called MOXIE (Mars Oxygen In-situ Resource Utilization Experiment). This experimental technology will suck in CO2 — which composes 96 percent of the Martian atmosphere — remove dust and other contaminants, and convert the CO2 into a small amount of oxygen.
The MOXIE device on Mars 2020 will only output about 22 grams of oxygen per hour, but if it succeeds, NASA researchers hope to land a 100-times larger MOXIE device on Mars capable of producing two kilograms of oxygen per hour.
This oxygen could be stored in tanks to be used as life support for future astronauts and for fuel for either autonomous or manned return flights to Earth.
Over the next few years, we can look forward to hearing about Mars 2020's experiments, hopefully learning whether or not life came into existence twice in the same solar system. As those years stretch into decades, the success of Mars 2020 will set up future manned missions to Mars, possibly as soon as the 2030s.
- Bill Nye: How NASA Can Get Humans to Mars by 2033 - Big Think ›
- Mars 2020 will hunt for 'microfossils', signs of ancient alien life - Big ... ›
- These 7 countries and companies are going to Mars in the 2020s - Big Think ›
- These countries and companies are going to Mars in the 2020s - Big Think ›
- Take a simulated tour in a Mars rover - Big Think ›
Join multiple Tony and Emmy Award-winning actress Judith Light live on Big Think at 2 pm ET on Monday.
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.