Once a week.
Subscribe to our weekly newsletter.
How introducing microbial life to Mars can make it livable for humans
In order to build a second Earth, we need to look at how the first one was made.
- Humanity dreams of becoming an interplanetary species, but no other planet in our solar system can currently support complex life.
- In order to make a planet like Mars hospitable for us, we'll have to engage in a massive, decades-long terraforming effort.
- Much of what makes Earth livable, such as breathable air, tolerable temperatures, and so on, are the result of microbial activity from Earth's early history. Can we use microbial life to make the same changes on Mars?
Three billion years ago, Earth would not have been all that pleasant for humans. It was covered in active volcanoes, spewing out carbon dioxide and water vapor. Single-celled life scraped by on a diet of sulfur. Most of the atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases, leaving the air toxic for us and most other modern life on Earth.
Then, about 2 and a half billion years ago, something happened. With what amounts to a snap of the fingers in geologic timescales, the atmosphere was pumped full of oxygen in what we call the Great Oxygenation Event. The abundance of oxygen meant that new, more diverse kinds of life could take a hold on the young planet, such as Eukaryotes. Fast-forward a few billion years, and complicated, multicellular life like ourselves are walking around the planet.
So where did all of this oxygen come from? Today, we think that nearly all of the oxygen on Earth came from cyanobacteria, tiny, blue-green, single-celled life that had the innovative idea of using sunlight to bake water and carbon dioxide into sugar for energy — that is, photosynthesis. Unfortunately for the cyanobacteria, photosynthesis makes the unappealing byproduct of oxygen, which they throw away into their environment.
Every breathe we take, we owe to cyanobacteria, and this influx of oxygen into our environment is ultimately responsible for why modern Earth is so accommodating to life. But what Earth giveth, Earth also taketh away. Whether it's because of climate change, nuclear war, a global pandemic, or some unknown catastrophe, eventually we'll want a new home. But our closest, best hope for a new home — Mars — doesn't have any oxygen.
It doesn't have much of an atmosphere at all, really.
This said, scientists are hoping to recreate the Great Oxygenation Event on Mars much in the same way it happened on Earth; by using microbial life to build the environment for us.
Terraforming Mars with microbes
An artist's depiction of a Martian terraforming effort's progression.
While Mars might be different from early Earth in many ways, it does possess some key characteristics that could make a microbial terraforming project work. Mars has an atmosphere that's 95 percent carbon dioxide, which provides half of the ingredients needed for cyanobacteria to make oxygen. The other ingredient, water, is admittedly scarce on the Red Planet, but we've seen evidence that it exists. We know that ice is abundant in the poles, so much so that if we were to melt them, Mars would be covered in an 18-foot-deep ocean.
There's already some liquid water that exists on Mars, to be sure — just in very scant amounts. We've seen features on Mars called recurring slope lineae, which are dark lines that advance down the sides of hills during the Martian summer and fade away during the winter. These dark lines are thought to be flows of water that come and go with the seasons.
This image of the side of a Martian crater shows recurring slope lineae. The dark lines descending from the slope of the crater come and go with the seasons, which may indicate flowing water.
So, to terraform Mars, we would start with areas where we know liquid water exists and dump a lot of cyanobacteria there. Admittedly, it would be a bit more of a sophisticated operation than that makes it sound, but that's the gist of the idea. We would also want to include microbes that produce greenhouse gases.
Mars has the opposite problem as Earth; we want to make Mars hotter and thicken its atmosphere, so its polar ice can melt. More water means more opportunities for microbial life to do its work. Not to mention that the current climate on Mars is much too chilly for even the hardiest human — it averages at about minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit, although the temperature can vary wildly.
The idea of using microbes to kickstart a terraforming project on Mars is so promising that NASA has already begun preliminary tests. The Mars Ecopoiesis Test Bed is a proposal for a device to be included with future robotic missions to Mars. It would look something like a drill with a hallow chamber inside. The drill would bury itself in the Martian soil, preferably somewhere with liquid water. A container full of cyanobacteria would be released into the chamber, and sensors would detect whether the microbial life produce any oxygen or other byproducts.
The first phase of this project was conducted in a simulated Martian environment here on Earth, and the results were positive. But even still, there are some major challenges we'll have to meet if we want to use microbially terraform Mars on a large-scale.
The Mars Ecopoiesis Test Bed.
Mars lacks something very necessary for life-giving planets: a magnetosphere. Mars used to have a magnetic field that protected the planet. We've found magnetized rocks on the surface indicating that this was the case, but at some point, the magnetic field just disappeared, and we don't know for certain what happened. Without a magnetosphere, the planet's surface is bombarded by solar radiation, which will make larger, more complex life difficult to sustain.
This "solar wind" also blows away the Martian atmosphere. So, even if we do coax microbial life into producing oxygen and other gasses, much of it will simply float away into space.
These images show different elements escaping from the Martian atmosphere. From left to right, the images show carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen floating away to space.
Fortunately, these challenges are not insurmountable. In the short term, we'll likely construct dome-like habitats to protect both us, our cyanobacteria, and our new atmosphere from the solar wind. In the long term, NASA scientists have proposed placing a powerful magnet in fixed orbit between Mars and the Sun. This magnet will redirect the solar wind, shielding the Martian atmosphere. As microbial life continues to output oxygen and greenhouse gases into the Martian atmosphere, the planet will warm up, the ice caps will melt into oceans, and Mars may very well become our second home.
- A Magnetotail Around Mars Would Cause the Planet to Terraform Itself ›
- Should We Use Comets and Asteroids to Terraform Mars? - Big Think ›
- The Cheapest Way to Terraform Mars - Big Think ›
- New design can get the most from Martian water - Big Think ›
Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to light recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Scientists do not know what is causing the overabundance of the gas.
- A new study looked to understand the source of methane on Saturn's moon Enceladus.
- The scientists used computer models with data from the Cassini spacecraft.
- The explanation could lie in alien organisms or non-biological processes.
Something is producing an overabundance of methane in the ocean hidden under the ice of Saturn's moon Enceladus. A new study analyzed if the source could be an alien life form or some other explanation.
The study, published in Nature Astronomy, was carried out by scientists at the University of Arizona and Paris Sciences & Lettres University, who looked at composition data from the water plumes erupting on Enceladus.
The particular chemistry, discovered by the Cassini spacecraft which flew through the plumes, suggested a high concentration of molecules that have been linked to hydrothermal vents on the bottom of Earth's oceans. Such vents are potential cradles of life on Earth, according to previous studies. The data from Cassini, which has been studying Saturn after entering its orbit in 2004, revealed the presence of molecular hydrogen (dihydrogen), methane, and carbon dioxide, with the amount of methane presenting a particular interest to the scientists."We wanted to know: Could Earthlike microbes that 'eat' the dihydrogen and produce methane explain the surprisingly large amount of methane detected by Cassini?" shared one of the study's lead authors Régis Ferrière, an associate professor in the department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Arizona.
Earth's hydrothermal vents feature microorganisms that use dihydrogen for energy, creating methane from carbon dioxide via the process of methanogenesis.
Searching for such microorganisms known as methanogens on the seafloor of Enceladus is not yet feasible. Likely, it would require very sophisticated deep diving operations that will be the objective of future missions.
So, Ferrière's team took a more available approach to pinpointing the origins of the methane, creating mathematical models that attempted to explain the Cassini data. They wanted to calculate the likelihood that particular processes were responsible for producing the amount of methane observed. For example, is the methane more likely the result of biological or non-biological processes?
They found that the data from Cassini was consistent with either microbial activity at hydrothermal vents or processes that have nothing to do with life but could be quite different from what happens on Earth. Intriguingly, models that didn't involve biological entities didn't seem to produce enough of the gas.
"Obviously, we are not concluding that life exists in Enceladus' ocean," Ferrière stated. "Rather, we wanted to understand how likely it would be that Enceladus' hydrothermal vents could be habitable to Earthlike microorganisms. Very likely, the Cassini data tell us, according to our models."
Still, the scientists think future missions are necessary to either prove or discard the "life hypothesis." One explanation for the methane that does not involve biological organisms is that the gas is the result of a chemical breakdown of primordial organic matter within Enceladus' core. This matter could have become a part of Saturn's moon from comets rich in organic materials.
It marks a breakthrough in using gene editing to treat diseases.
This article was originally published by our sister site, Freethink.
For the first time, researchers appear to have effectively treated a genetic disorder by directly injecting a CRISPR therapy into patients' bloodstreams — overcoming one of the biggest hurdles to curing diseases with the gene editing technology.
The therapy appears to be astonishingly effective, editing nearly every cell in the liver to stop a disease-causing mutation.
The challenge: CRISPR gives us the ability to correct genetic mutations, and given that such mutations are responsible for more than 6,000 human diseases, the tech has the potential to dramatically improve human health.
One way to use CRISPR to treat diseases is to remove affected cells from a patient, edit out the mutation in the lab, and place the cells back in the body to replicate — that's how one team functionally cured people with the blood disorder sickle cell anemia, editing and then infusing bone marrow cells.
Bone marrow is a special case, though, and many mutations cause disease in organs that are harder to fix.
Another option is to insert the CRISPR system itself into the body so that it can make edits directly in the affected organs (that's only been attempted once, in an ongoing study in which people had a CRISPR therapy injected into their eyes to treat a rare vision disorder).
Injecting a CRISPR therapy right into the bloodstream has been a problem, though, because the therapy has to find the right cells to edit. An inherited mutation will be in the DNA of every cell of your body, but if it only causes disease in the liver, you don't want your therapy being used up in the pancreas or kidneys.
A new CRISPR therapy: Now, researchers from Intellia Therapeutics and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals have demonstrated for the first time that a CRISPR therapy delivered into the bloodstream can travel to desired tissues to make edits.
We can overcome one of the biggest challenges with applying CRISPR clinically.
"While these are early data, they show us that we can overcome one of the biggest challenges with applying CRISPR clinically so far, which is being able to deliver it systemically and get it to the right place," she continued.
What they did: During a phase 1 clinical trial, Intellia researchers injected a CRISPR therapy dubbed NTLA-2001 into the bloodstreams of six people with a rare, potentially fatal genetic disorder called transthyretin amyloidosis.
The livers of people with transthyretin amyloidosis produce a destructive protein, and the CRISPR therapy was designed to target the gene that makes the protein and halt its production. After just one injection of NTLA-2001, the three patients given a higher dose saw their levels of the protein drop by 80% to 96%.
A better option: The CRISPR therapy produced only mild adverse effects and did lower the protein levels, but we don't know yet if the effect will be permanent. It'll also be a few months before we know if the therapy can alleviate the symptoms of transthyretin amyloidosis.
This is a wonderful day for the future of gene-editing as a medicine.
If everything goes as hoped, though, NTLA-2001 could one day offer a better treatment option for transthyretin amyloidosis than a currently approved medication, patisiran, which only reduces toxic protein levels by 81% and must be injected regularly.
Looking ahead: Even more exciting than NTLA-2001's potential impact on transthyretin amyloidosis, though, is the knowledge that we may be able to use CRISPR injections to treat other genetic disorders that are difficult to target directly, such as heart or brain diseases.
"This is a wonderful day for the future of gene-editing as a medicine," Fyodor Urnov, a UC Berkeley professor of genetics, who wasn't involved in the trial, told NPR. "We as a species are watching this remarkable new show called: our gene-edited future."