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New research shows that sleep helps determine your personality
The quality and duration of your nightly ritual helps define who you are.
- People who suffer from emotional instability tend to exhibit poor sleep duration, continuity, and subjective sleep quality.
- Conscientious people report less variability in sleep duration and continuity.
- The study suggests that how you sleep this week predicts your personality five years from now.
Sleep science is a rapidly growing field that has, time and again, proven how important sleeping is to every facet of our lives. Not getting enough sleep has been implicated in diseases of dementia, the ability to process memories, the removal of toxins from the brain, lost productivity (and associated costs), and workplace incivility—that's only the beginning of an extensive list.
The study above on being a rude co-worker hints at the notion that sleep informs your personality. Now new research, published in the European Journal of Personality, makes an even bolder claim: The quality of sleep you're getting this week will likely inform your personality five years from now.
According to Zlatan Križan and Garrett Hisler, both in the Department of Psychology at Iowa State University, of the five broad personality domains (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness), two are greatly influenced by subjective sleep quality, while all five are in some manner determined by nightly habits.
The team identifies four critical aspects during each sleep cycle: duration, continuity, subjective quality, and architecture, or the "patterning of sleep state and biological activity."
Duration is important, with seven to nine hours being the sweet spot for most adults. How long you sleep is determined by a number of factors, including sleep debt, chronic sleep need, constraints such as work schedules, and personal preferences. Not everyone requires the same amount as everyone else, but knowing what you really need is important.
Continuity also plays a key role in regulating the physiological processes of your body. Ideally, you fall asleep easily, stay asleep, and wake up smoothly. Of course, this is not the case for many Americans, especially when checking your phone around bedtime (or worse, sleeping with it in your bed) negatively impacts your sleep.
Sleep quality is distinct in that it is self-reported. Importantly, the authors note, perception matters, as it is implicated in a number of mental health issues, including anxiety, depression, PTSD, bipolar disorder, and psychosis. Feeling unrested is a common factor in all of these.
Finally, sleep architecture deals with your ability to optimally cycle through the four states of sleep smoothly, including spending enough time in REM sleep. One sign of sleep deprivation, for example, is hanging out in non-REM mode; you never quite feel sated. For the purposes of this study, the duo did not focus on this aspect.
Joe Rogan - Sleep Expert on Insomnia
Križan and Hassler mined data from the Midlife in the United States Study, which provided a treasure trove of information that included week-long sleeping patterns and a rich assessment of personality traits. Of the 382 participants, 63 percent were female, with an age range between 34 and 82 years old. The most impacted personality traits were those displaying neuroticism (a tendency to experiencing negative emotions, aka emotional instability) and conscientiousness (an ability to display self-discipline; striving for achievement regardless of outside measures).
"In terms of intra-individual sleep variability, neuroticism predicted more variability in sleep duration, continuity, and subjective sleep quality, while conscientiousness predicted less variability in sleep duration and sleep continuity. Extraversion, agreeableness, and openness traits did not generally foreshadow behaviorally recoded sleep, only higher ratings of subjective quality."
Photo by Ute Grabowsky/Photothek via Getty Images
The authors note that most personality traits were impacted in some manner in typical reports of subjective sleep quality. The outliers were neuroticism, low conscientiousness, stress reaction, and alienation (such as hostility), all of which involved less sleep continuity. Variability and duration stood the test of time, however.
How you're sleeping now is likely how you've been doing it for a while—and likely how you'll be doing it in five years. As they report:
"The passage of time did little to weaken these links between personality and sleep; traits predicted sleep assessed more than five years later as well as sleep assessed only a few weeks later."
The link between personality and sleep seems to be a somewhat permanent fixture of the individual. On most every measure, the ability to control your behavior and emotions seems tied to better sleep. For those with troubles regulating their thoughts and emotions, the opposite holds true. These patterns continue throughout life, except if they are specifically addressed and changed.
This valuable addition to the growing literature on sleep science points to two important factors. Firstly, how you act and think consciously is embedded in your subconscious, which is in part regulated by sleep. Perhaps more importantly, if you want to change your patterns of behavior, diligently focusing on your nighttime ritual might be the catalyst for such change.
Data provided by this rich study summate what we already know: If you don't change your habits, you'll fall victim to them. Being malleable animals affords us the flexibility to integrate new patterns and the inner drive for making sure they stick. Increase your sleep duration and quality and behavioral shifts will occur.
- How the brain processes your memories in your sleep - Big Think ›
- Hacking sleep: What is monophasic, biphasic, and polyphasic sleep? - Big Think ›
Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to light recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
China has reached a new record for nuclear fusion at 120 million degrees Celsius.
This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.
China wants to build a mini-star on Earth and house it in a reactor. Many teams across the globe have this same bold goal --- which would create unlimited clean energy via nuclear fusion.
But according to Chinese state media, New Atlas reports, the team at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has set a new world record: temperatures of 120 million degrees Celsius for 101 seconds.
Yeah, that's hot. So what? Nuclear fusion reactions require an insane amount of heat and pressure --- a temperature environment similar to the sun, which is approximately 150 million degrees C.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it. In nuclear fusion, the extreme heat and pressure create a plasma. Then, within that plasma, two or more hydrogen nuclei crash together, merge into a heavier atom, and release a ton of energy in the process.
Nuclear fusion milestones: The team at EAST built a giant metal torus (similar in shape to a giant donut) with a series of magnetic coils. The coils hold hot plasma where the reactions occur. They've reached many milestones along the way.
According to New Atlas, in 2016, the scientists at EAST could heat hydrogen plasma to roughly 50 million degrees C for 102 seconds. Two years later, they reached 100 million degrees for 10 seconds.
The temperatures are impressive, but the short reaction times, and lack of pressure are another obstacle. Fusion is simple for the sun, because stars are massive and gravity provides even pressure all over the surface. The pressure squeezes hydrogen gas in the sun's core so immensely that several nuclei combine to form one atom, releasing energy.
But on Earth, we have to supply all of the pressure to keep the reaction going, and it has to be perfectly even. It's hard to do this for any length of time, and it uses a ton of energy. So the reactions usually fizzle out in minutes or seconds.
Still, the latest record of 120 million degrees and 101 seconds is one more step toward sustaining longer and hotter reactions.
Why does this matter? No one denies that humankind needs a clean, unlimited source of energy.
We all recognize that oil and gas are limited resources. But even wind and solar power --- renewable energies --- are fundamentally limited. They are dependent upon a breezy day or a cloudless sky, which we can't always count on.
Nuclear fusion is clean, safe, and environmentally sustainable --- its fuel is a nearly limitless resource since it is simply hydrogen (which can be easily made from water).
With each new milestone, we are creeping closer and closer to a breakthrough for unlimited, clean energy.
The symbol for love is the heart, but the brain may be more accurate.
- How love makes us feel can only be defined on an individual basis, but what it does to the body, specifically the brain, is now less abstract thanks to science.
- One of the problems with early-stage attraction, according to anthropologist Helen Fisher, is that it activates parts of the brain that are linked to drive, craving, obsession, and motivation, while other regions that deal with decision-making shut down.
- Dr. Fisher, professor Ted Fischer, and psychiatrist Gail Saltz explain the different types of love, explore the neuroscience of love and attraction, and share tips for sustaining relationships that are healthy and mutually beneficial.