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Sitting is the new smoking, but not all types of sitting are made equal
A new study has bad news for those who binge watch TV.
- Too much sitting is horrible for you, but not all sitting is the same.
- A new study finds even short bouts of movement during the day can dramatically reduce your risk of death.
- While it found light exercise was able to counter some effects of sitting, it found moderate to vigorous workouts did better.
Americans have a sitting problem. A quarter of us are sedentary for eight waking hours a day, which wreaks havoc on our health. It increases our mortality rate, increases your risk of dying from pretty much everything, and leaves us less healthy than if we were to get a little more exercise in.
However, according to a new study, not all sitting is equal, and there are simple things you can do to reduce the adverse effects on your health.
You may want to take this standing up
A new study out of Columbia University, and published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, followed 7,999 volunteers over four years and examined how active they were during the day. After that, they were monitored for up to four years to see how their activity levels related to their mortality rates.
It was found that the risk of death could be cut by 17 percent by replacing a mere 30 minutes of sitting with light exercise each day. The benefit doubled when the activity was a little more intense than just walking. Interestingly, they found that these benefits did not require the subject to do all of the exercising at once. Reaching a half hour through short bursts throughout the day was equally effective.
Lead author Dr. Keith Diaz summarized the findings:
"Our findings underscore an important public health message that physical activity of any intensity provides health benefits. If you have a job or lifestyle that involves a lot of sitting, you can lower your risk of early death by moving more often, for as long as you want and as your ability allows — whether that means taking an hour-long high-intensity spin class or choosing lower-intensity activities, like walking."
So, what should I do?
The first answer is that you should sit less. The most significant drops in mortality rates were seen when people spent at least 30 minutes a day on moderate exercise, such as brisk walking, gardening, swimming, or even housework. While you should be getting more than a half hours' worth each day, this is an excellent place to start.
Failing that, you should find ways to work small bouts of light exercise into your day. Even little walks to the coffee machine or a quick stretch every half hour can help. Two minutes of exercise every half hour works out to around 30 minutes of it over an eight-hour workday, an amount that will do you good.
This finding means that different kinds of seated activities can be worse for your health than others. Sitting at your desk at work is often punctuated by these small bits of movement even if you don't plan on them. Vegging out on the sofa watching six hours of television is rarely marked by these short bouts of exercise, excepting when you need to get up to get more snacks — or use the bathroom.
Again, the real takeaway from all of this is that you should get more exercise. The Mayo Clinic says that 30 minutes of moderate exercise is the least you can do and that generally aiming for more is better.
Sitting may be the new smoking, but there is no reason why your desk job should kill you. The findings of this study, while confirming the risks posed by an inactive lifestyle, demonstrate that there are simple ways to correct for inactivity that you can do right now.
Now that I'm done writing this, I think I'll go for a walk. If you've been reading it, I advise you to do the same.
A Mercury-bound spacecraft's noisy flyby of our home planet.
- There is no sound in space, but if there was, this is what it might sound like passing by Earth.
- A spacecraft bound for Mercury recorded data while swinging around our planet, and that data was converted into sound.
- Yes, in space no one can hear you scream, but this is still some chill stuff.
First off, let's be clear what we mean by "hear" here. (Here, here!)
Sound, as we know it, requires air. What our ears capture is actually oscillating waves of fluctuating air pressure. Cilia, fibers in our ears, respond to these fluctuations by firing off corresponding clusters of tones at different pitches to our brains. This is what we perceive as sound.
All of which is to say, sound requires air, and space is notoriously void of that. So, in terms of human-perceivable sound, it's silent out there. Nonetheless, there can be cyclical events in space — such as oscillating values in streams of captured data — that can be mapped to pitches, and thus made audible.
Image source: European Space Agency
The European Space Agency's BepiColombo spacecraft took off from Kourou, French Guyana on October 20, 2019, on its way to Mercury. To reduce its speed for the proper trajectory to Mercury, BepiColombo executed a "gravity-assist flyby," slinging itself around the Earth before leaving home. Over the course of its 34-minute flyby, its two data recorders captured five data sets that Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) enhanced and converted into sound waves.
Into and out of Earth's shadow
In April, BepiColombo began its closest approach to Earth, ranging from 256,393 kilometers (159,315 miles) to 129,488 kilometers (80,460 miles) away. The audio above starts as BepiColombo begins to sneak into the Earth's shadow facing away from the sun.
The data was captured by BepiColombo's Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) instrument. Says Carmelo Magnafico of the ISA team, "When the spacecraft enters the shadow and the force of the Sun disappears, we can hear a slight vibration. The solar panels, previously flexed by the Sun, then find a new balance. Upon exiting the shadow, we can hear the effect again."
In addition to making for some cool sounds, the phenomenon allowed the ISA team to confirm just how sensitive their instrument is. "This is an extraordinary situation," says Carmelo. "Since we started the cruise, we have only been in direct sunshine, so we did not have the possibility to check effectively whether our instrument is measuring the variations of the force of the sunlight."
When the craft arrives at Mercury, the ISA will be tasked with studying the planets gravity.
The second clip is derived from data captured by BepiColombo's MPO-MAG magnetometer, AKA MERMAG, as the craft traveled through Earth's magnetosphere, the area surrounding the planet that's determined by the its magnetic field.
BepiColombo eventually entered the hellish mangentosheath, the region battered by cosmic plasma from the sun before the craft passed into the relatively peaceful magentopause that marks the transition between the magnetosphere and Earth's own magnetic field.
MERMAG will map Mercury's magnetosphere, as well as the magnetic state of the planet's interior. As a secondary objective, it will assess the interaction of the solar wind, Mercury's magnetic field, and the planet, analyzing the dynamics of the magnetosphere and its interaction with Mercury.
Recording session over, BepiColombo is now slipping through space silently with its arrival at Mercury planned for 2025.
Research suggests that aging affects a brain circuit critical for learning and decision-making.
As people age, they often lose their motivation to learn new things or engage in everyday activities. In a study of mice, MIT neuroscientists have now identified a brain circuit that is critical for maintaining this kind of motivation.
Researchers find a key clue to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- A new study says solar and lunar tide impacts led to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- The scientists show that tides created tidal pools, stranding fish and forcing them to get out of the water.
- The researchers ran computer simulations to get their results.
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