Want to know what mice in labs are saying? Try DeepSqueak.
A breakthrough app for ultrasonic squeak analysis.
- Mice have a vocabulary of about 20 different phrases.
- A clever new neural-network-based application reveals what mice used in research say.
- Spoiler: The conversation changes when a female shows up
Rodents are chatty little creatures, and even if mice aren't really hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings, as they're portrayed to be in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, they do seem to speak in their own very high-pitched way. They have what University of Washington researcher Kevin Coffey characterizes as "a rich repertoire of calls" — around 20 of them.
But what could they be saying?
On Jan. 4, Coffey and his colleague, Russell Marx, published a study in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology that delves into this mystery. Through a new software application they've developed called "DeepSqueak," the duo has made several insights.
DeepSqueak squeaks, visualized
(UW Medicine/Big Think)
Mouse vocalizations are largely in the high-frequency, ultrasonic range — much higher, around 100 kHz, than we can hear — and automated analysis tools until now have fallen short. Noise confuses those programs, they're held back by static algorithms, and they're slow. DeepSqueak, however, turns the problem on its head by treating the audio challenge as a visual one. In it, machine hearing works together with "deep" artificial neural networks to learn over time, to get better and better at differentiating squeaks. Hence the "deep" in DeepSqueak.
DeepSqueak captures audio recordings of 100 kHz-range mouse vocalizations, converts them first into sonograms, and then runs those images through recognition algorithms not dissimilar to the type used by autonomous vehicles for identifying objects. "DeepSqueak uses biomimetic algorithms that learn to isolate vocalizations by being given labeled examples of vocalizations and noise," explained Marx in a press release. Essentially, DeepSqueak learns the difference between deliberate mouse utterances and extraneous noises, and then discerns patterns to derive the rodent's meaning.
The application looks to offer a "convenient, affordable and widely available" method of analyzing mouse vocalizations when rodents are being used as test subjects in studies of, for example, addiction in humans, according to UW's John Neumaier, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. And indeed, says Coffey, "With drugs of abuse, you see both positive and negative calls."
So what are mice saying?
Cloud of mouse vocalization shapes
So far, a few types of "conversations" have been identified. For example, when two male mice are in contact, they squeak the same calls over and over.
Interestingly, should a female stop by, the vocalizations increase in complexity. While it could be they're just trying to sound smart, the fact that this change of sounds is most pronounced when a male smells, but doesn't see, a female suggests that the noises may have to do with courtship.
DeepSqueak has also identified vocal sounds that express happiness when mice are expecting a reward, such as sugar, or during play with other mice.
Researchers have just discovered the remains of a hybrid human.
90,000 years ago, a young girl lived in a cave in the Altai mountains in southern Siberia. Her life was short; she died in her early teens, but she stands at a unique point in human evolution. She is the first known hybrid of two different kinds of ancient humans: the Neanderthals and the Denisovans.
These thought leaders, founders, and entrepreneurs are propelling the kind of future we want to be a part of.
- The tech industry may be dominated by men in terms of numbers, but there are lots of brilliant women in leadership positions that are changing the landscape.
- The women on this list are founders of companies dedicated to teaching girls to code, innovators in the fields of AI, VR, and machine learning, leading tech writers and podcasters, and CEOs of companies like YouTube and Project Include.
- This list is by no means all-encompassing. There are many more influential women in tech that you should seek out and follow.
Most said they want to act on their desire someday. But do open relationships actually work?
- The study involved 822 Americans who were in monogamous relationships at the time.
- Participants answered questions about their personalities, sexual fantasies, and intentions to act on those fantasies.
- Research suggests practicing consent, comfort, and communication makes open relationships more likely to succeed.
Consensual non-monogamy fantasies<p>For the new study, published in <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-020-01788-7" target="_blank">Archives of Sexual Behavior</a>, researchers asked 822 people in monogamous relationships to:</p><ul><li>Describe their favorite sexual fantasy, defined as "mental images you have while you are awake that you find to be sexually arousing or erotic."</li><li>Select which themes apply to that fantasy, such as having sex with multiple people at the same time, experimenting with taboos, or engaging in a sexually open relationship.</li><li>Answer whether they intended to carry out these fantasies, and discuss them with their partner.</li><li>Complete assessments on relationship satisfaction, erotophilia and personality, as measured by the Big Five Personality inventory.</li></ul><p>The results showed that 32.6 percent of participants said being part of a sexually open relationship was "part of their favorite sexual fantasy of all time." More surprising is that, of that one-third, 80 percent said they want to act on this fantasy in the future.</p>
Pretzelpaws via Wikipedia Commons<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The present research confirms the important distinction between sexual fantasy and sexual desire in that not everyone wanted to act on their favorite sexual fantasy of all time," study author Justin J. Lehmiller told <a href="https://www.psypost.org/2020/09/one-third-of-people-in-monogamous-relationships-fantasize-about-being-in-some-type-of-open-relationship-study-suggests-58102" target="_blank">PsyPost</a>. "This suggests that fantasies may serve different functions for different people."</p><p>Even though most participants said they want to act out their fantasy in the future, far fewer reported acting out sexual fantasies in the past. Other findings included:</p><ul><li>Men were more likely to fantasize about CNMRs.</li><li>So were people who scored high in <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erotophilia#:~:text=Erotophilia%20is%20a%20personality%20trait,ranging%20from%20erotophobia%20to%20erotophilia." target="_blank">erotophilia</a> and sociosexual orientation.</li><li>The psychological predictors of fantasizing about CNMRs differed from predictors about infidelity fantasies.</li></ul>
Do open relationships work?<p>A <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00224499.2019.1669133" target="_blank">2019 study</a> from psychologists at the University of Rochester suggests it <em>is </em>possible<em>, </em>but especially when both partners practice a trio of behaviors: consent, communication, and comfort — or, the Triple-C Model.<br></p>But the study also suggests not all forms of open relationships are equally viable. For example, people in one-sided CNMRs — where one partner stays monogamous, the other seeks outside sexual relationships — were nearly three times more dissatisfied in their relationships than the monogamous group <em>and </em>the consensual non-monogamous group.
The results of this study showed depressive symptoms being highest in adolescence, declining in early adulthood and then climbing back up again into one's early 30s.