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What could alternate, alien forms of life look like?
All life as we know it relies on carbon and water. But researchers speculate this doesn't have to be the case.
- Life on Earth (and therefore all life we know) relies on carbon and water.
- Carbon and water make for excellent ingredients when making life, but many other elements could serve in their place under the right conditions.
- What are these alternative forms of life and under what conditions could they flourish?
All life on Earth, and thus, all life we've ever observed in the universe, shares a few basic characteristics. Its molecular structures are built using carbon, it relies on water to act as a solvent and facilitate chemical reactions, and it uses DNA or RNA as its blueprints.
These qualities seem so ubiquitous that most any compound we can find that contains carbon is called an organic compound. Carbon works very well as the basis for the chemistry of life. It can bond with many molecules, building structures large enough to be biologically relevant, and its bonds are strong and stable. Using water and DNA/RNA are also seemingly fine-tuned to enable life to exist.
But just because these properties of life are true on Earth doesn't mean they are true everywhere. In fact, we can readily imagine different environments where alternative forms of life can exist. Here are some of the major ways we think that life can vary from the standard we see on Earth.
An artists' rendering of organosilicon-based life. Organosilicon compounds contain carbon-silicon bonds.
Lei Chen and Yan Liang (BeautyOfScience.com) for Caltech
The same stuff that constitutes computer chips and electrical circuits may also constitute life somewhere in the universe. Carbon can form bonds with up to four other atoms at once, bind to oxygen, and form polymer chains, all of which make it ideal for the complex chemistry of life. Silicon, which lies just beneath carbon on the table of elements, also shares these characteristics.
Despite these qualities, silicon is still quite limited as a basis for life. It can only form stable bonds with a limited number of other elements; its polymers would be very monotonous, limiting its ability to form the complex compounds needed for life to occur; and silicon chemistry is not stable in aqueous, or watery, environments. Another issue is that when carbon oxidizes, it forms carbon dioxide, an easily expellable gas. When silicon oxidizes, it forms silicon dioxide, also known as silica, quartz, or sand. This solid waste would pose some serious mechanical challenges for any silicon-based life. Such a hypothetical lifeform would excrete bricks of sand every time it took a breath, which would make vacationing at the beach somewhat more horrifying.
Under certain conditions, silicon-based chemistry might be more favorable for life than carbon-based. Silicon chemistry would also be much more amenable to life in oceans of cold elements that we don't usually associate with life, such as liquid nitrogen, methane, ethane, neon, and argon. Places like these exist in the universe, notably in our own solar system: One of the major features of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is its lakes of liquid ethane and methane.
An artist's depiction of a world with ammonia-based life. Ittiz [CC BY-SA 3.0]
Most of the chemical reactions that life relies on take place within a watery environment. Water dissolves many different molecules — it is a solvent, and having a good solvent is a prerequisite for the kind of chemistry that brings about life.
Like water, ammonia is also common throughout the galaxy. It's also capable of dissolving organic compounds like water, and, unlike water, it can also dissolve some metallic ones, opening up the possibility for some more interesting chemistry to be used in living things.
However, ammonia is also flammable in the presence of oxygen; has much lower surface tension than water, making it difficult to hold prebiotic molecules together for very long; and its melting and boiling points are much lower than water, at –78°C and –33.15°C, respectively. Thus, the chemistry of ammonia-based life would occur much more slowly, and commensurately, its metabolism and evolution would also be slower. An important caveat, though, is that these are the melting and boiling points that occur at Earth's atmospheric pressure. Under higher pressures, these values would rise.
One of the exciting features of ammonia-based life is that it could exist outside of the so-called habitability zone, or the range where liquid water can exist. Titan, for instance, may hold oceans of ammonia beneath its surface, and although it lies outside of our solar system's habitable zone, it could for this reason host life. Astrobiologists often point to Titan as a possible site of alternative life forms within our own solar system.
Just as a person can be left-handed or right-handed, so too can organic molecules. These molecules are mirror images of one another, but life, for whatever reason, wound up using one side or the other, which is called chirality. Amino acids, for instance, are "left-handed," while the sugars in RNA and DNA are "right-handed." For these molecules to interact with one another, they have to be of the correct kind of chirality; if protein chains are made with mixed-chirality amino acids, they simply don't work. But a protein chain constructed from right-handed amino acids, the opposite of what life on Earth uses, would work perfectly fine.
All of Earth's ecology depends on this convention. In order to eat, we need to consume food of the appropriate chirality. We can be infected and defend against infections of the appropriate chirality. Everything on Earth has the appropriate chirality, so this works just fine.
But alien life might evolve to use the opposite chirality as Earth. This life would be fundamentally quite similar to life on Earth — using carbon as its backbone and water as its solvent — but it would interact with us in one of two possible ways. First, it wouldn't be able to interact at all. Even if microbial life tried eat some other microbial life, the "reverse" sugars would be indigestible, and viruses wouldn't be able to bind to host cells. This would probably be a good thing, since we don't want to be infected with any alien diseases.
But there are critters on Earth that don't eat chiral nutrients, such as cyanobacteria. A comparable alien microbe would be able to eat as much as it wants, reproduce indefinitely, and would never be kept in check by predators since it itself would be of the wrong chirality. This would dramatically disrupt the food chain on an apocalyptic scale.
These alternative forms of life aren't the only ones that exist, but they're among the most likely. A lot of what we know about chemistry suggests that carbon- and water-based life will be the most common among the universe, but we've only ever had a sample of one to study: our own planet. If we find life on other worlds, we'll gain even greater insight into how living things come about.
- We are alone in the universe, says new Drake equation - Big Think ›
- Dark Forest theory: Why aliens haven't contacted us - Big Think ›
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
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