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Why sex behind the Iron Curtain was better for women
A new book about life under communism reveals an unexpected benefit.
- A new book by Kristen Ghodsee argues that women had much better sex in communist Eastern Europe than in the West.
- She attributes this to steps those states took to empower women and their resulting economic independence.
- While rebuilding the Iron Curtain isn't called for, the author suggests we can learn ways to empower women from these communist regimes.
Think of every image of communist Eastern Europe you've ever seen and every establishing shot of it ever put to film. You're probably thinking of long lines of people waiting to get bread, drab grey tenements, and prematurely aged couples reading Pravda while their neighbors are arrested for crimes against the people they probably didn't commit.
This image is popular and not without some truth to it, but if a new book by Kristen Ghodsee is correct you'll need to add another idea to your stereotypes: Excellent sex.
Women had better sex under socialism
After the reunification of Germany, a few interesting studies were undertaken about the sex lives of German women from both sides of the Iron Curtain.To the surprise of many in the West, two-thirds of the East German woman reported that they "almost always" had an orgasm during sex, with another 18 percent revealing they did so "often". What's more, 82% of them reported being "happy" after sex. On the other hand, the West German women experienced orgasms half as much as their communist counterparts and only 52% of them reported being "happy" after sex.
In Russia, studies on various kinds of relationships show a proliferation of people viewing relationships as a mere "calculation" after the fall of communism and a slew of friendship- and romance-driven ones during the days of the USSR. When combined with interviews given by Eastern Bloc women on how life was before and after the fall of communism, there is a clear dividing line between sex before and after capitalism won.
But, why was this the case?
Ironically, a capitalistic idea called sexual economics theory can shed some light on the subject.
The idea rests on a few questionable assumptions; it assumes that men have much higher sex drives than women and that women are more than willing to use sex as an exchangeable service to acquire goods and services from men on a regular basis. While these are far from generally accepted ideas, the theory is a useful tool for discussion.
In the theory, the "price of sex" can vary based on supply and demand, much like any other commodity. When there are more women then men the price falls, when there are more men than women the price goes up. Casual sex causes the price to drop. In a society where women cannot make money outside the home, marriage can be the "price" of assuring a lifetime deal where women are guaranteed economic support and men are assured intimacy.
However, if women are economically independent – in the USSR women were encouraged to go into STEM fields and made up 50% of all "engineering and technical specialists", and many Eastern Bloc countries made attempts at public childcare services for working families – then the need for this vanishes.
The idea then is that when women have economic independence, accessible childcare options that make parenting while working easier, and the right to leave relationships they no longer care for, the commodification of sex ends and the markets described above break down. Since Eastern Bloc men could no longer "buy" sex by just being providers, they had to be competent at it instead if they wanted to keep their relationships working.
The author also explains that in some of the Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia in particular, men were encouraged to better share housework with women. Since we know now that couples who split domestic work more evenly have more sex, it is presumed that this effect also existed behind the Iron Curtain. The Polish were a tad more conservative than their neighbors, but still developed a holistic approach to sexology that might explain why they are still more satisfied than Americans to this day.
So, should we all start wearing Mao Jackets and singing the Internationale?
Not quite, as good sex doesn't fully justify the other things Soviet-style communism did, and the Romanian communists didn't manage to achieve any of the benefits mentioned above. Dr. Ghodsee doesn't endorse a return to state socialism at all. Instead, she suggests that we learn from both the communist states of old and the social democratic countries of today and how they made life for women better.
The use of quotas in Scandinavian countries to increase the number of women on the executive committees of large corporations has been rather successful, though the limited success of the program in creating change outside the boardroom leaves some room for improvement. Other programs that Dr. Ghodsee suggests America steal from other countries include mandatory maternity leave and bolder action on ending the wage gap.She also mentions that because women have lower wages and own less wealth than men, government programs that provide services for everybody are more likely to benefit women. It is entirely possible to implement programs like universal health and childcare or job guarantees without falling to authoritarianism. She also mentions how people who work in the public sector tend to be female and suggests expanding it to improve economic opportunity.
This all sounds suspiciously like communist propaganda, comrade; extremely persuasive propaganda.
More than a few objections have been raised about the hypothesis that sex was better under communism since the idea was first put forward. A few of these are worth mentioning.
First of all, all of the data is self-reported. While the statistics are probably fine in this case, women in East Germany had no reason to lie any more than women in West Germany, and though there isn't a better way to learn all of this, the data should be taken with a grain of salt.
Secondly, while the common interpretation of these studies is that the socioeconomic status of women was the driver behind the improved sex, other explanations have been put forward. One of the more amusing ones is that in a society plagued by rationing there might not be much else to do in the way of entertainment on a Friday night.
Despite these issues, the primary finding still stands; women in the Eastern Bloc claimed to have better sex lives than their Western counterparts, and there are explanations as to why this might be the case that aren't too far-fetched.
Should we all storm the barricades in the name of Marx and better sex lives? Probably not, but the lessons from behind the Iron Curtain on sex, relationships, and giving new families the support they need are still of use. As Ghodsee says about state socialist systems, "There was a baby in that bathwater. It's time we got around to saving it."
The father of all giant sea bugs was recently discovered off the coast of Java.
- A new species of isopod with a resemblance to a certain Sith lord was just discovered.
- It is the first known giant isopod from the Indian Ocean.
- The finding extends the list of giant isopods even further.
Humanity knows surprisingly little about the ocean depths. An often-repeated bit of evidence for this is the fact that humanity has done a better job mapping the surface of Mars than the bottom of the sea. The creatures we find lurking in the watery abyss often surprise even the most dedicated researchers with their unique features and bizarre behavior.
A recent expedition off the coast of Java discovered a new isopod species remarkable for its size and resemblance to Darth Vader.
The ocean depths are home to many creatures that some consider to be unnatural.
According to LiveScience, the Bathynomus genus is sometimes referred to as "Darth Vader of the Seas" because the crustaceans are shaped like the character's menacing helmet. Deemed Bathynomus raksasa ("raksasa" meaning "giant" in Indonesian), this cockroach-like creature can grow to over 30 cm (12 inches). It is one of several known species of giant ocean-going isopod. Like the other members of its order, it has compound eyes, seven body segments, two pairs of antennae, and four sets of jaws.
The incredible size of this species is likely a result of deep-sea gigantism. This is the tendency for creatures that inhabit deeper parts of the ocean to be much larger than closely related species that live in shallower waters. B. raksasa appears to make its home between 950 and 1,260 meters (3,117 and 4,134 ft) below sea level.
Perhaps fittingly for a creature so creepy looking, that is the lower sections of what is commonly called The Twilight Zone, named for the lack of light available at such depths.
It isn't the only giant isopod, far from it. Other species of ocean-going isopod can get up to 50 cm long (20 inches) and also look like they came out of a nightmare. These are the unusual ones, though. Most of the time, isopods stay at much more reasonable sizes.
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During an expedition, there are some animals which you find unexpectedly, while there are others that you hope to find. One of the animal that we hoped to find was a deep sea cockroach affectionately known as Darth Vader Isopod. The staff on our expedition team could not contain their excitement when they finally saw one, holding it triumphantly in the air! #SJADES2018
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What benefit does this find have for science? And is it as evil as it looks?
The discovery of a new species is always a cause for celebration in zoology. That this is the discovery of an animal that inhabits the deeps of the sea, one of the least explored areas humans can get to, is the icing on the cake.
Helen Wong of the National University of Singapore, who co-authored the species' description, explained the importance of the discovery:
"The identification of this new species is an indication of just how little we know about the oceans. There is certainly more for us to explore in terms of biodiversity in the deep sea of our region."
The animal's visual similarity to Darth Vader is a result of its compound eyes and the curious shape of its head. However, given the location of its discovery, the bottom of the remote seas, it may be associated with all manner of horrifically evil Elder Things and Great Old Ones.
The first nation to make bitcoin legal tender will use geothermal energy to mine it.
This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.
In June 2021, El Salvador became the first nation in the world to make bitcoin legal tender. Soon after, President Nayib Bukele instructed a state-owned power company to provide bitcoin mining facilities with cheap, clean energy — harnessed from the country's volcanoes.
The challenge: Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a digital form of money and a payment system. Crypto has several advantages over physical dollars and cents — it's incredibly difficult to counterfeit, and transactions are more secure — but it also has a major downside.
Crypto transactions are recorded and new coins are added into circulation through a process called mining.
Crypto mining involves computers solving incredibly difficult mathematical puzzles. It is also incredibly energy-intensive — Cambridge University researchers estimate that bitcoin mining alone consumes more electricity every year than Argentina.
Most of that electricity is generated by carbon-emitting fossil fuels. As it stands, bitcoin mining produces an estimated 36.95 megatons of CO2 annually.
A world first: On June 9, El Salvador became the first nation to make bitcoin legal tender, meaning businesses have to accept it as payment and citizens can use it to pay taxes.
Less than a day later, Bukele tweeted that he'd instructed a state-owned geothermal electric company to put together a plan to provide bitcoin mining facilities with "very cheap, 100% clean, 100% renewable, 0 emissions energy."
Geothermal electricity is produced by capturing heat from the Earth itself. In El Salvador, that heat comes from volcanoes, and an estimated two-thirds of their energy potential is currently untapped.
Why it matters: El Salvador's decision to make bitcoin legal tender could be a win for both the crypto and the nation itself.
"(W)hat it does for bitcoin is further legitimizes its status as a potential reserve asset for sovereign and super sovereign entities," Greg King, CEO of crypto asset management firm Osprey Funds, told CBS News of the legislation.
Meanwhile, El Salvador is one of the poorest nations in North America, and bitcoin miners — the people who own and operate the computers doing the mining — receive bitcoins as a reward for their efforts.
"This is going to evolve fast!"
If El Salvador begins operating bitcoin mining facilities powered by clean, cheap geothermal energy, it could become a global hub for mining — and receive a much-needed economic boost in the process.
The next steps: It remains to be seen whether Salvadorans will fully embrace bitcoin — which is notoriously volatile — or continue business-as-usual with the nation's other legal tender, the U.S. dollar.
Only time will tell if Bukele's plan for volcano-powered bitcoin mining facilities comes to fruition, too — but based on the speed of things so far, we won't have to wait long to find out.
Less than three hours after tweeting about the idea, Bukele followed up with another tweet claiming that the nation's geothermal energy company had already dug a new well and was designing a "mining hub" around it.
"This is going to evolve fast!" the president promised.
How were mRNA vaccines developed? Pfizer's Dr Bill Gruber explains the science behind this record-breaking achievement and how it was developed without compromising safety.
- Wondering how Pfizer and partner BioNTech developed a COVID-19 vaccine in record time without compromising safety? Dr Bill Gruber, SVP of Pfizer Vaccine Clinical Research and Development, explains the process from start to finish.
- "I told my team, at first we were inspired by hope and now we're inspired by reality," Dr Gruber said. "If you bring critical science together, talented team members together, government, academia, industry, public health officials—you can achieve what was previously the unachievable."
- The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine has not been approved or licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but has been authorized for emergency use by FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to prevent COVID-19 for use in individuals 12 years of age and older. The emergency use of this product is only authorized for the duration of the emergency declaration unless ended sooner. See Fact Sheet: cvdvaccine-us.com/recipients.