Over half of Americans are stressed because of medical bills
Anxiety does not help other medical conditions, adding trouble on top of trouble.
- More than 137 million people in the United States are struggling to pay their medical bills, according to new research.
- A recent survey also suggests that employer-based insurance programs are not helping as much as believed.
- The worst hit group is uninsured Americans, who struggle to keep up with mounting medical expenses.
Health care is at the top of the ticket in the rush toward the 2020 presidential election. Details between "Medicare for all" and public and private options will be on full display at a time when even so-called conventional wisdom is up for debate: the general consensus that employer-based health care options are best is not looking like a strong argument, as a recent survey shows.
The survey, a joint effort between the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Los Angeles Times, notes that over half (54 percent) of respondents claim that someone in their family suffers from chronic conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or asthma. A lifetime of medication and monitoring is ensured, putting serious strain on families. Job-based health plans have almost quadrupled in price over the last dozen years.
This isn't the only recent research to confirm struggles with America's health care system. A large-scale study by the American Cancer Society confirms an inconvenient fact: more than 137 million people in the United States are struggling to pay their medical bills.
The financial risk of cancer is well known: 42 percent of cancer patients lose their life savings within two years of treatment. This new research, conducted by four doctors in the Surveillance and Health Services Research Program at the ACA, looks at high out-of-pocket (OOP) spending for overall medical care—not just in the treatment of cancer—with a particular emphasis on employment-aged citizens, 18-64.
Why Medical Bills In The US Are So Expensive
Financial toxicity due to OOP costs have received much attention in recent years. One conceptual framework, proposed by Nandita Khera in 2014, features a four-level grading criteria for expressing financial problems:
- Lifestyle modification (deferral of large purchases or reduced spending on vacation and leisure activities) because of medical expenditure; Use of charity grants/fundraising/copayment program mechanisms to meet costs of care
- Temporary loss of employment resulting from medical treatment; Need to sell stocks/investments for medical expenditure; Use of savings accounts, disability income, or retirement funds for medical expenditure
- Need to mortgage/refinance home to pay medical bills; Permanent loss of job as a result of medical treatment; Current debts household income; Inability to pay for necessities such as food or utilities
- Need to sell home to pay for medical bills; Declaration of bankruptcy because of medical treatment; Need to stop treatment because of financial burden; Consideration of suicide because of financial burden of care
For this study, ACA researchers point to three domains of financial medical hardship—"material conditions that arise from increased OOP expenses and lower income (e.g., medical debt); psychological responses (e.g. distress, worry); coping behaviors (e.g. delaying or forgoing care because of cost)"—in their analysis. Looking beyond oncology, they used the 2015-2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to collect data.
Nearly 70 percent of respondents (ages 18-64) had private health insurance; nearly 50 percent of respondents over age 65 reported having Medicare and private insurance. The group having the most financial problems are in the 18-64 age range, with higher material, psychological, and behavioral financial hardship.
Members of National Nurses United union members wave "Medicare for All" signs during a rally in front of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America in Washington calling for "Medicare for All" on Monday, April 29, 2019. (Photo By Bill Clark/CQ Roll Call)
One-third of older Americans reported hardship in at least one of those three domains compared to 56 percent in the employment-aged group. Overall, women were hit hardest. Uninsured respondents reported problems in multiple domains (52.8 percent), followed by those with public insurance (26.5 percent) and finally, private coverage (23.2 percent). Over three-fourths of uninsured respondents are struggling in at least one domain.
As noted, over half of respondents experience hardship in one domain, while over a quarter report issues in two domains. Sadly, the authors write, this problem is only getting worse.
"With increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions; higher patient cost-sharing; and higher costs of healthcare; the risk of hardship will likely increase in the future. Thus, development and evaluation of the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to minimize medical financial hardship will be important."
Climate change and health care remain top issues in the upcoming election cycle. While candidates make their plea and pundits choose sides, the rest of the population is suffering. By the time November, 2020 rolls around, more citizens will be bankrupted (and more needlessly dead) due to the politics of health care.
That is the most tragic realization of all: we could have done something about this epidemic yet partisan paralysis has stopped us. There is nothing caring about such a system.
What would happen if you tripled the US population? Join Matthew Yglesias and Charles Duhigg at 1pm ET on Monday, September 28.
Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
Dominique Crenn, the only female chef in America with three Michelin stars, joins Big Think Live.
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