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Bernie Sanders: The U.S. already has a kind of socialism – for the rich
Bernie speaks again about what democratic socialism means, and raises a debate about what freedom is.
- Bernie Sanders again spoke about what democratic socialism means to him.
- At one point, he explained how his notion of freedom is possible only in a society that protects economic rights.
- His speech reveals that his thinking goes beyond a mere dedication to economic opportunity.
Democratic socialism, once the ideology of a rare few American intellectuals and activists, has enjoyed a massive spike in popularity over the past three years. A great deal of the credit for this must go to Bernie Sanders, the self-described democratic socialist from Vermont whose presidential campaign brought unabashedly progressive ideas into the mainstream of American political discussion. Today, during his second run for president, ideas that he alone supported in 2016 are increasingly popular within his adopted party.
However, he remains alone in claiming the title of a socialist in a country where not everyone favors the term and fewer understand it. In an attempt to both explain his motivations and the ideology he promotes, he gave a speech at George Washington University explaining what democratic socialism means to him.
What democratic socialism means to Bernie Sanders: Redux
As we've discussed before, Bernie Sanders isn't really a democratic socialist. His various policy proposals don't call for a change in the ownership of the means of production, a key socialist demand, but instead for reforms to capitalism that would allow for it to work better for everybody and not merely the owners of capital. This worldview is similarly named "social democracy."
While he flips the terms around, it doesn't really get in the way of his arguments for why he thinks the economy needs a shake up.
Sanders framed this worldview in terms of economic rights and a sense of justice that he frequently references in his stump speech. In substance, this speech was very similar to one he gave in 2015 explaining what democratic socialism meant to him – but was delivered with a much more aggressive style befitting what he dubbed a "defining and pivotal moment" for the United States.
Having long since stepped away from ideas of nationalization, Sanders again invoked the New Deal as the template for his conception of democratic socialism. He very clearly argued that his notion of socialism means using the power of the government to empower the working class through programs such as universal health care, tuition-free education, and a job guarantee. He used this conception to propose that the United States already has socialism of a kind, but only for the rich, as evidenced by the bailouts, tax cuts, and subsidies that large corporations currently enjoy.
He ties these notions of using the government to make the economy work for the many rather than the few to many issues facing the world today, as he sees income inequality as a contributor to the problems of climate change, sexism, racism, and the rise of authoritarians around the world. This diagnosis of the situation is similar to that given by "real" socialists to his left, though they argue he doesn't go far enough in his solutions.
"[Bernie Sanders'] notion of socialism means using the power of the government to empower the working class through programs such as universal health care, tuition-free education, and a job guarantee."
What freedom means to Bernie Sanders: Positive liberty
In a telling moment in this speech, Sanders tied his notion of economic justice to the very idea of freedom. He rhetorically asked the audience if they were truly free if they couldn't afford medicine, housing, or other necessities. "No," he answered.
This shows an understanding of freedom as based on what a person can do rather than what they are prevented from doing. This distinction, first seriously considered by philosopher Isaiah Berlin in 1958, gives further context to Bernie's idea of what democratic socialism is.
For Berlin, this capacity to act on your free will, which he dubbed "positive liberty," was every bit as needed as the freedom from external interference, which he dubbed "negative liberty," though the two could occasionally come into conflict when trying to sort out the details.
Looking at Sanders' speech through this lens, his idea of democratic socialism can be seen as a way of using the power of the government to increase the positive liberty of the American people, giving them the capacity to fully utilize the freedoms they are so proud of. It is undoubtable, however, that many Americans, with their commitment to independence and self-reliance, will find this idea of freedom new and strange.
This is cool and all, but what is he going to do?
While this speech was big on examples of social-democratic programs in American history, he frequently referenced the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt and invoked Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson, and Martin Luther King Jr. for good measure, it was light on new, concrete policy proposals.
He did, however, promise that in the weeks to come he would introduce a series of proposals to create an "economic bill of rights" clearly modeled on the Second Bill of Rights FDR proposed in the footage seen above. Among these are the right to education, health care, housing, a clean environment, a job that pays a living wage, and a secure retirement.
Bernie Sanders' unexpectedly popular run for president in 2016 has ignited debates in the United States that seemed unfathomable only a few years prior. His speech shows that his idea of what democratic socialism is remains based firmly in the social-democratic tradition of the New Deal and Great Society. It also shows that he knows that the discussion around ideology in the United States is partly a discussion of what we want freedom to look like – a question that will linger long after we define what socialism actually is.
- What is socialism—and what it isn't? - Big Think ›
- What socialism is according to Bernie Sanders - Big Think ›
- Concrete Socialism in New York - Big Think ›
Scientists used CT scanning and 3D-printing technology to re-create the voice of Nesyamun, an ancient Egyptian priest.
- Scientists printed a 3D replica of the vocal tract of Nesyamun, an Egyptian priest whose mummified corpse has been on display in the UK for two centuries.
- With the help of an electronic device, the reproduced voice is able to "speak" a vowel noise.
- The team behind the "Voices of the Past" project suggest reproducing ancient voices could make museum experiences more dynamic.
Howard et al.<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"While this approach has wide implications for heritage management/museum display, its relevance conforms exactly to the ancient Egyptians' fundamental belief that 'to speak the name of the dead is to make them live again'," they wrote in a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56316-y#Fig3" target="_blank">paper</a> published in Nature Scientific Reports. "Given Nesyamun's stated desire to have his voice heard in the afterlife in order to live forever, the fulfilment of his beliefs through the synthesis of his vocal function allows us to make direct contact with ancient Egypt by listening to a sound from a vocal tract that has not been heard for over 3000 years, preserved through mummification and now restored through this new technique."</p>
Connecting modern people with history<p>It's not the first time scientists have "re-created" an ancient human's voice. In 2016, for example, Italian researchers used software to <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/hear-recreated-voice-otzi-iceman-180960570/" target="_blank">reconstruct the voice of Ötzi,</a> an iceman who was discovered in 1991 and is thought to have died more than 5,000 years ago. But the "Voices of the Past" project is different, the researchers note, because Nesyamun's mummified corpse is especially well preserved.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"It was particularly suited, given its age and preservation [of its soft tissues], which is unusual," Howard told <em><a href="https://www.livescience.com/amp/ancient-egypt-mummy-voice-reconstructed.html" target="_blank">Live Science</a>.</em></p><p>As to whether Nesyamun's reconstructed voice will ever be able to speak complete sentences, Howard told <em><a href="https://abcnews.go.com/Weird/wireStory/ancient-voice-scientists-recreate-sound-egyptian-mummy-68482015" target="_blank">The Associated Press</a>, </em>that it's "something that is being worked on, so it will be possible one day."</p><p>John Schofield, an archaeologist at the University of York, said that reproducing voices from history can make museum experiences "more multidimensional."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"There is nothing more personal than someone's voice," he told <em>The Associated Press.</em> "So we think that hearing a voice from so long ago will be an unforgettable experience, making heritage places like Karnak, Nesyamun's temple, come alive."</p>
Inequality in wealth, gender, and race grew to unprecedented levels across the world, according to OxFam report.
- A new report by global poverty nonprofit OxFam finds inequality has increased in every country in the world.
- The alarming trend is made worse by the coronavirus pandemic, which strained most systems and governments.
- The gap in wealth, race and gender treatment will increase until governments step in with changes.
People wait in line to receive food at a food bank on April 28, 2020 in Brooklyn.
Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images
Credit: Oxfam International
A supernova exploded near Earth about 2.5 million years ago, possibly causing an extinction event.
- Researchers from the University of Munich find evidence of a supernova near Earth.
- A star exploded close to our planet about 2.5 million years ago.
- The scientists deduced this by finding unusual concentrations of isotopes, created by a supernova.
This Manganese crust started to form about 20 million years ago. Growing layer by layer, it resulted in minerals precipitated out of seawater. The presence of elevated concentrations of 60 Fe and 56 Mn in layers from 2.5 million years ago hints at a nearby supernova explosion around that time.
Credit: Dominik Koll/ TUM