from the world's big
Why eating ice cream is linked to shark attacks
Why are soda and ice cream each linked to violence? This article delivers the final word on what people mean by "correlation does not imply causation."
- Ice cream consumption is actually linked to shark attacks.
- But the relationship is correlative, not causal.
- It's pretty stunning how media outlets skip over this important detail.
Soda and ice cream are linked to violence. What the what? And people have concluded from data that smoking, chocolate, and curly fries are good for you. Why the when?
I'll explain -- but also go much further and show you… wait for it… that figuring out why such things are true doesn't even matter at all for driving decisions with data. Who the how? It's time for the "correlation does not imply causation" clarification proclamation moment of zen clarity. Let's do this!
Ice cream and shark attacks
Ice cream cone and a shark.
According to the data, ice cream consumption is linked to shark attacks. How the why? Well, maybe eating ice cream makes you taste better? So, you consume the ice cream and the shark consumes you. But the more accepted sharksplanation is that it's seasonal. It just so happens that, when it's warmer, more people are eating ice cream and also more people are swimming in the ocean.
That is to say that there's no causal relationship, in either direction -- neither of these things causes the other, even indirectly. Instead, they're both caused by a third factor. So the good news is that we've found a link, a connection, a correlation between these two factors in the data -- and that's valuable. The two are indeed predictive of one another. If we see ice cream sales increase, we can rightly ascertain a higher probability of shark attacks, and vice versa. But the bad news is that, when we discover such a correlation, oftentimes their common cause, some third factor, is just not in our data set at all. That data wasn't included, 'cause it was overlooked or perhaps it would be difficult or costly to collect. So we're stuck with a predictive correlation, but no definitive causal explanation as to why it is so.
Soda and violence
This headline about soda turning teens into killers is really something.
Now, soda also appears to be dangerous. In 2011, an economics professor and a health policy researcher went public with this as their research result. Among adolescents, they found, "a strong association between soft drinks and violence..." And they also wrote, "... drinking more than five cans of non-diet soft drinks per week was associated with a 9–15 percentage point increase in the probability of engaging in violent actions... There may be a direct cause-and-effect relationship, perhaps due to the sugar or caffeine content of soft drinks."Well, after that, a cacophony of media coverage erupted, with headlines like, "Soda Totally Turns Teens Into Killers." Then skeptics began to push back. Now, they didn't question the correlation between soda consumption and violence. Rather, they questioned the causal relationship. Ya see, you can conclude that there's a link, a connection, an association, a correlation between two factors without necessarily understanding why it is so. The "why" -- the explanation -- always involves causation: some insight as to how things influence or affect one another.
The criticism here is that you shouldn't conclude soda causes violence. Rather, it may be that diet is linked to socio-economic status. Lower income teens consume more junk food, including sodas, and poverty itself is a risk factor for teen violence. Now if that story is true, the causal links shown here -- like, the exact way in which poverty leads to violence -- could be pretty complex and somewhat multi-staged, but the point is that this is a plausible alternative explanation that doesn't have soda even indirectly causing violence, so it's unwarranted to sound the alarm about the dangers of soda.
Let me put it another way. Even if it's true that violent people drink more soda, there's no reason to fully believe that drinking soda will make you more violent. That would be like assuming that eating more ice cream will cause more shark attacks. Ice cream and soda may be bad for you, but not in that way.
Chocolate eaters are more slim
The operative word here is 'may'. Also, 'may not' would equally apply.
Anyway, now some great news: Some tempting vices are good for you, like chocolate, smoking, curly fries, and breakfast! ...is what people who presume causation say.
"More frequent chocolate intake is linked to a lower body mass index," according to three University of California medical and economics researchers who published this finding. Their writing states that this association "could be causal," since chocolate might lessen the depositing of fat.
And cue the media frenzy. A BBC headline announced, "Chocolate 'May Help Keep People Slim,'" and a Wall Street Journal video with "It appears to make you thin" in its caption kicks off with, "It doesn't make you fatter."
Now, I would say that people's passionate love for chocolate precipitates this wishful thinking and bold presumption of causation... but then again I can't really be sure what caused them to fudge it. It's funny 'cause it's true.
Correlation does not imply causation
Anyway, the discovery of a correlation between two items does not mean one causes the other, not even indirectly. It just doesn't necessarily tell us anything about any causal relationship. The hallways of universities and the chatrooms of the Internet echo with a frequent reminder of this utmost, dire warning:
"Correlation does not imply causation."
Statisticians absolutely scream this rule from the rooftops just as often as the popular press and big data hacks overlook it.
Now, looking at chocolate consumption and a lower body mass index, another plausible causal explanation would be that people reward themselves with chocolate when they lose weight. That is, lower weight leads to chocolate consumption, rather than the other way around.
Or, it could be that people just eat more chocolate because they weren't trying to lose weight in the first place because they were already thin.
Or another possibility is that poverty, which has been tied to higher weight, also makes chocolate less affordable, so people with a lower income weigh more on average and yet also eat less chocolate.
Or it could be some combination of all these different causal relationships. We don't know. The main point is, you gotta live in that uncertainty and avoid the temptation to presume a specific causal relationship when only correlation has been established. Adjust your brain to accept this lack of knowledge.
Smokers suffer less repetitive motion disorder
A seal smoking a pipe.
Another example: Smokers suffer less from repetitive motion disorder. An ergonomics consultant found that, among editors at a major metropolitan newspaper, those who smoked cigarettes were less likely to develop carpal tunnel syndrome. Could it be that this is a veritable health benefit of smoking? I don't think so! The consultant believes it was because smokers take more breaks.
That does seem like a more likely explanation to me, but remember that the correlation in the data in and of itself provides no evidence that one explanation is more likely than another. Scientifically establishing causation usually requires collecting data by way of an experimental setup that includes having a control group. But most of the data out there wasn't collected for science. Typical "big data" projects leverage the tremendous load of data that companies generate in the normal course of conducting business. Today's priceless explosion of data exists only as a fortunate side effect. Such data, also known as "found data," is like data from a typical survey or so-called "longitudinal" research in that it doesn't include any purposefully held-aside control group. So typical "big data" serves to establish correlations but not causation.
Curly fries and breakfast
These curly fries are looking delicious.
Guess what else. People who like "Curly Fries" on Facebook are more intelligent. So does that mean eating curly fries makes you smarter? Well, that would throw you for a loop. Instead, researchers believe it was just that a Facebook page for this fun food item happened to gain popularity among a group of relatively smart people.
And finally, men who eat breakfast face a lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, that doesn't necessarily mean breakfast deserves its reputation as the most important meal of the day. We can't conclude this connection results from the food itself being good for you. Instead, the researchers suggest that eating breakfast is a proxy for lifestyle -- if you're leading a busy, high-stressed life, you're more likely to skip breakfast and you're also subjected to a higher health risk. But, once again, that's largely just an intuitive hunch. As always, there are other plausible explanations.
Causality is only an avocational interest
Now, you may be asking, doesn't Dr. Data even care why these things are true? Isn't he at least curious? Well, yeah, for sure -- but it isn't my day job. People in the "real sciences" like physics, chemistry, and medical research have their work cut out for them. They have to figure out how the world works, why things happen the way they do. I don't envy them — 'cause we data scientists have it much easier. Most deployments of machine learning improve decision-making without scientifically investigating causal effects.
In fact, this point was once put quite bluntly by a chief analytics officer of the New York City mayor's office in a published interview — and this is a real: "Causation is for other people... it is very dicey... You know, we have real problems to solve. I can't dick around, frankly, thinking about other things like causation right now."
Ok, message received!
So, if a higher risk level is predicted for an individual, we don't necessarily need to understand why in order to take precautions accordingly. For example, screening men who skip breakfast for heart disease could be useful, even if we don't necessarily believe scrambled eggs and cornflakes are what make the difference to your health.
About the Dr. Data show
This article is based on a transcript from The Dr. Data Show.
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Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?
- Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
- It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
- COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
What conditions of the new normal were already appreciated widely?<p>First, we understand that higher education is unique among industries. Some industries are governed by markets. Others are run by governments. Most operate under the influence of both markets and governments. And then there's higher education. Higher education as an "industry" involves public, private, and for-profit universities operating at small, medium, large, and now massive scales. Some higher education industry actors are intense specialists; others are adept generalists. Some are fantastically wealthy; others are tragically poor. Some are embedded in large cities; others are carefully situated near farms and frontiers.</p> <p>These differences demonstrate just some of the complexities that shape higher education. Still, we understand that change in the industry is underway, and we must be active in directing it. Yet because of higher education's unique (and sometimes vexing) operational and structural conditions, many of the lessons from change management and the science of industrial transformation are only applicable in limited or highly modified ways. For evidence of this, one can look at various perspectives, including those that we have offered, on such topics as <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/rethinking-higher-education/lessons-disruption" target="_blank">disruption</a>, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/education/learning/education-technology.html" target="_blank">technology management</a>, and so-called "<a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/media/Excerpt_IHESpecialReport_Growing-Role-of-Mergers-in-Higher-Ed.pdf" target="_blank">mergers and acquisitions</a>" in higher education. In each of these spaces, the "market forces" and "market rules" for higher education are different than they are in business, or even in government. This has always been the case and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p> <p>Second, with so much excitement about innovation in higher education, we sometimes lose sight of the fact that students are—and should remain—the core cause for innovation. Higher education's capacity to absorb new ideas is strong. But the ideas that endure are those designed to benefit students, and therefore society. This is important to remember because not all innovations are designed with students in mind. The recent history of innovation in higher education includes several cautionary tales of what can happen when institutional interests—or worse, <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/apollos-new-owners-seek-fresh-start-beleaguered-company" target="_blank">shareholder</a> interests—are placed above student well-being.</p>
Photo: Getty Images<p>Third, it is abundantly apparent that universities must leverage technology to increase educational quality and access. The rapid shift to delivering an education that complies with social distancing guidelines speaks volumes about the adaptability of higher education institutions, but this transition has also posed unique difficulties for colleges and universities that had been slow to adopt digital education. The last decade has shown that online education, implemented effectively, can meet or even surpass the quality of in-person <a href="https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z" target="_blank">instruction</a>.</p><p>Digital instruction, broadly defined, leverages online capabilities and integrates adaptive learning methodologies, predictive analytics, and innovations in instructional design to enable increased student engagement, personalized learning experiences, and improved learning outcomes. The ability of these technologies to transcend geographic barriers and to shrink the marginal cost of educating additional students makes them essential for delivering education at scale.</p><p>As a bonus, and it is no small thing given that they are the core cause for innovation, students embrace and enjoy digital instruction. It is their preference to learn in a format that leverages technology. This should not be a surprise; it is now how we live in all facets of life.</p><p>Still, we have only barely begun to conceive of the impact digital education will have. For example, emerging virtual and augmented reality technologies that facilitate interactive, hands-on learning will transform the way that learners acquire and apply new knowledge. Technology-enabled learning cannot replace the traditional college experience or ensure the survival of any specific college, but it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale. This has always been the case, and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p>
What conditions of the new normal were emerging suspicions?<p>Our collective thinking about the role of institutional or university-to-university collaboration and networking has benefitted from a new clarity in light of COVID-19. We now recognize more than ever that colleges and universities must work together to ensure that the American higher education system is resilient and sufficiently robust to meet the needs of students and their families.</p> <p>In recent weeks, various commentators have suggested that higher education will face a wave of institutional <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/scott-galloway-predicts-colleges-will-close-due-to-pandemic-2020-5" target="_blank">closures</a> and consolidations and that large institutions with significant online instruction capacity will become dominant.</p> <p>While ASU is the largest public university in the United States by enrollment and among the most well-equipped in online education, we strongly oppose "let them fail" mindsets. The strength of American higher education relies on its institutional diversity, and on the ability of colleges and universities to meet the needs of their local communities and educate local students. The needs of learners are highly individualized, demanding a wide range of options to accommodate the aspirations and learning styles of every kind of student. Education will become less relevant and meaningful to students, and less responsive to local needs, if institutions of higher learning are allowed to fail. </p> <p>Preventing this outcome demands that colleges and universities work together to establish greater capacity for remote, distributed education. This will help institutions with fewer resources adapt to our new normal and continue to fulfill their mission of serving students, their families, and their communities. Many had suspected that collaboration and networking were preferable over letting vulnerable colleges fail. COVID-19's new normal seems to be confirming this.</p>
President Barack Obama delivers the commencement address during the Arizona State University graduation ceremony at Sun Devil Stadium May 13, 2009 in Tempe, Arizona. Over 65,000 people attended the graduation.
Photo by Joshua Lott/Getty Images<p>A second condition of the new normal that many had suspected to be true in recent years is the limited role that any one university or type of university can play as an exemplar to universities more broadly. For decades, the evolution of higher education has been shaped by the widespread imitation of a small number of elite universities. Most public research universities could benefit from replicating Berkeley or Michigan. Most small private colleges did well by replicating Williams or Swarthmore. And all universities paid close attention to Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, and Yale. It is not an exaggeration to say that the logic of replication has guided the evolution of higher education for centuries, both in the US and abroad.</p><p>Only recently have we been able to move beyond replication to new strategies of change, and COVID-19 has confirmed the legitimacy of doing so. For example, cases such as <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/10/harvard-moves-classes-online-advises-students-stay-home-after-spring-break-response-covid-19/" target="_blank">Harvard's</a> eviction of students over the course of less than one week or <a href="https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Mayor-New-Haven-asks-for-coronavirus-help-Yale-15162606.php" target="_blank">Yale's apparent reluctance</a> to work with the city of New Haven, highlight that even higher education's legacy gold standards have limits and weaknesses. We are hopeful that the new normal will include a more active and earnest recognition that we need many types of universities. We think the new normal invites us to rethink the very nature of "gold standards" for higher education.</p>
A graduate student protests MIT's rejection of some evacuation exemption requests.
Photo: Maddie Meyer/Getty Images<p>Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we had started to suspect and now understand that America's colleges and universities are among the many institutions of democracy and civil society that are, by their very design, incapable of being sufficiently responsive to the full spectrum of modern challenges and opportunities they face. Far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted. And without new designs, we can expect postsecondary success for these same students to be as elusive in the new normal, as it was in the <a href="http://pellinstitute.org/indicators/reports_2019.shtml" target="_blank">old normal</a>. This is not just because some universities fail to sufficiently recognize and engage the promise of diversity, this is because few universities have been designed from the outset to effectively serve the unique needs of lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color.</p>
Where can the new normal take us?<p>As colleges and universities face the difficult realities of adapting to COVID-19, they also face an opportunity to rethink their operations and designs in order to respond to social needs with greater agility, adopt technology that enables education to be delivered at scale, and collaborate with each other in order to maintain the dynamism and resilience of the American higher education system.</p> <p>COVID-19 raises questions about the relevance, the quality, and the accessibility of higher education—and these are the same challenges higher education has been grappling with for years. </p> <p>ASU has been able to rapidly adapt to the present circumstances because we have spent nearly two decades not just anticipating but <em>driving</em> innovation in higher education. We have adopted a <a href="https://www.asu.edu/about/charter-mission-and-values" target="_blank">charter</a> that formalizes our definition of success in terms of "who we include and how they succeed" rather than "<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/10/17/forget-varsity-blues-madness-lets-talk-about-students-who-cant-afford-college/" target="_blank">who we exclude</a>." We adopted an entrepreneurial <a href="https://president.asu.edu/read/higher-logic" target="_blank">operating model</a> that moves at the speed of technological and social change. We have launched initiatives such as <a href="https://www.instride.com/how-it-works/" target="_blank">InStride</a>, a platform for delivering continuing education to learners already in the workforce. We developed our own robust technological capabilities in ASU <a href="https://edplus.asu.edu/" target="_blank">EdPlus</a>, a hub for research and development in digital learning that, even before the current crisis, allowed us to serve more than 45,000 fully online students. We have also created partnerships with other forward-thinking institutions in order to mutually strengthen our capabilities for educational accessibility and quality; this includes our role in co-founding the <a href="https://theuia.org/" target="_blank">University Innovation Alliance</a>, a consortium of 11 public research universities that share data and resources to serve students at scale. </p> <p>For ASU, and universities like ASU, the "new normal" of a post-COVID world looks surprisingly like the world we already knew was necessary. Our record breaking summer 2020 <a href="https://asunow.asu.edu/20200519-sun-devil-life-summer-enrollment-sets-asu-record" target="_blank">enrollment</a> speaks to this. What COVID demonstrates is that we were already headed in the right direction and necessitates that we continue forward with new intensity and, we hope, with more partners. In fact, rather than "new normal" we might just say, it's "go time." </p>
Can an orgasm a day really keep the doctor away?
- Achieving orgasm through masturbation provides a rush of feel-good hormones (such as dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin) and can re-balance our levels of cortisol (a stress-inducing hormone). This helps our immune system function at a higher level.
- The surge in "feel-good" hormones also promotes a more relaxed and calm state of being, making it easier to achieve restful sleep, which is a critical part in maintaining a high-functioning immune system.
- Just as bad habits can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system which can prevent you from becoming sick.
How masturbation affects your brain...<p>Orgasms are a very common human phenomenon. The physical and mental health benefits have been researched frequently as a result, and yet, there is still so much to be learned about how our bodies and brains react to the chemicals and hormones released during and after experiencing this type of sexual release.</p><p>"The amount of speculation versus actual data on both the function and value of orgasm is remarkable" explains Julia Heiman, director of the <a href="https://kinseyinstitute.org/" target="_blank">Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction</a>.</p><p>Masturbation causes a rush of <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/what-is-dopamine" target="_blank">dopamine</a>, which is a chemical that is associated with our ability to feel pleasure. Along with the rush of dopamine that is released during an orgasm, there is also a release of a hormone called <a href="https://www.livescience.com/42198-what-is-oxytocin.html" target="_blank">oxytocin</a>, which is commonly referred to as the "love hormone."<br></p><p>This concoction of chemicals does more than just boost our mood, it also can play a key role in decreasing stress and promoting relaxation. Oxytocin decreases <a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">cortisol</a>, which is a stress hormone that is usually present (in high volumes) during times of anxiety, fear, panic, or distress. </p><p>According to BDSM and fetish researcher <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/dr-gloria-brame-colbert-ga/278388" target="_blank">Dr. Gloria Brame</a>, an orgasm is the biggest non-drug induced blast of dopamine that we can experience. </p><p>By boosting the oxytocin and dopamine levels and subsequently decreasing our cortisol levels, the brain is placed in a more relaxed, euphoric, and calm state. </p>
Masturbation boosts your immune system and raises your white blood cell count.<p>How do those effects on the brain from reaching orgasm translate to boosting our immune system and making our body healthier?</p><p>The increase of oxytocin and dopamine that causes a decrease in cortisol levels can help boost our immune system because cortisol (well-known for being a stress-inducing hormone) actually helps maintain your immune system if released in small doses. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.health24.com/Sex/Great-sex/incredible-health-benefits-to-masturbating-20181030-2" target="_blank">Dr. Jennifer Landa</a>, a hormone-therapy specialist, masturbation can produce the right kind of environment for a strengthened immune system to thrive. </p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316239" target="_blank">A study</a> conducted by the Department of Medical Psychology at the University Clinic of Essen (in Germany) showed similar results. A group of 11 volunteers were asked to participate in a study that would look at the effects of orgasm through masturbation on the white blood cell count and immune system.</p><p>During this experiment, the white blood cell count of each participant was analyzed through measures that were taken 5 minutes before and 45 minutes after reaching a self-induced orgasm. </p><p>The results confirmed that sexual arousal and orgasm increased the number of white blood cells, particularly the natural killer cells that help fight off infections. </p><p>The findings confirm that our immune system is positively affected by sexual arousal and self-induced orgasm and promote even more research into the positive impacts of sexual arousal and orgasm. </p>
Masturbation can ease and prevent pain, which allows you to achieve the restful sleep that helps your immune system stay strong and healthy.<p>The benefits of masturbation have long been debated, but the more research that is done on the topic the more we understand that there are many positive reactions that happen in our bodies and brains when we orgasm.</p><p>Orgasms can help prevent or mitigate pain, which boosts the immune system, preventing cold and flu symptoms. </p><p>According to neurologist and headache specialist Stefan Evers, about one in three patients experience relief from migraine attacks by experiencing sexual activity or orgasm. Evers and his team <a href="https://www.livescience.com/27642-sex-relieves-migraine-pain.html" target="_blank">conducted an experiment</a> with 800 migraine patients and 200 patients who suffered from cluster-headaches to see how their experiences with sexual activity impacted their pain levels. </p><p>The study showed that 60% of migraine sufferers experienced pain relief after participating in sexual activity that resulted in orgasm. Of the cluster-headache sufferers, about 50% said their headaches actually worsened after sexual arousal and orgasm. </p><p>Evers suggested in his findings that the people who did not experience pain relief from migraines of headaches during their sexual activity did not release as large amounts of endorphins as those who did experience pain relief. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.sharecare.com/health/chronic-pain/chronic-pain-affect-immune-system" target="_blank">rheumatologist Dr. Harris McIlwain</a>, people who suffer from chronic pain have immune systems that are simply not functioning at full capacity - therefore, alleviating pain (through orgasm, as an example) can help boost the immune system. </p><p>Orgasms can also promote relaxation and make it easier to fall asleep. Serotonin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine are all hormones that are released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and all three are known for counteracting stress hormones and promoting relaxation, which makes it much easier for you to fall asleep.</p><p>There are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1233384" target="_blank">several studies</a> showing that serotonin and norepinephrine help our body cycle through REM and deep non-REM sleeping cycles. During these sleep cycles, the immune system releases proteins called <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity" target="_blank"><span id="selection-marker-1" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span>cytokines<span id="selection-marker-2" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span></a>, which target infection and inflammation. This is a critical part of our immune response. Cytokines are both produced and released throughout our bodies while we sleep, which proves the importance of a good sleep schedule to a healthy immune system.</p>
Masturbation promotes a high-functioning immune system; a healthy immune system prevents cold and flu.<p>The immune system is a balanced network of cells and organs that work together to defend you against infections and diseases by stopped threats like bacteria and viruses from entering your system. While there are many things we need to do to keep our immune systems functioning at optimal levels, masturbation (or other means of achieving orgasm) has proven to have positive effects on the immune system as a whole.</p><p>Just as bad habits (such as an inconsistent sleep schedule or harmful chemicals in your body) can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system. </p>
Hollywood has created an idea of aliens that doesn't match the science.
- Ask someone what they think aliens look like and you'll probably get a description heavily informed by films and pop culture. The existence of life beyond our planet has yet to be confirmed, but there are clues as to the biology of extraterrestrials in science.
- "Don't give them claws," says biologist E.O. Wilson. "Claws are for carnivores and you've got to be an omnivore to be an E.T. There just isn't enough energy available in the next trophic level down to maintain big populations and stable populations that can evolve civilization."
- In this compilation, Wilson, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku, Bill Nye, and evolutionary biologist Jonathan B. Losos explain why aliens don't look like us and why Hollywood depictions are mostly inaccurate.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.