Nearly 80 percent of all Americans think the Bible is either literally true or is the inspired word of God. And yet, most Americans have no idea what is actually in the Bible, as Stephen Prothero notably demonstrated in his book Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know - and Doesn't.
(To test your religious literacy, take Prothero's quiz here.)
And so we have the paradoxical situation in which we as a culture "have invested the words of this book with amazing authority even when we don't know what these words are and what they mean."
So says Joel Baden, Associate Professor of Old Testament at Yale Divinity School. Baden gave a recent talk called "What Use is the Bible?" (see video below) at The Nantucket Project, a festival of ideas on Nantucket, MA.
"The Bible has effectively ceased to become a text," Baden argues, but instead has become a symbol of power and authority "that is undergirded by the relatively uninformed faith commitments of the majority of the American public. To speak in the name of the Bible is to claim a piece of that authority."
And this is a power that can be abused, and often is. When people invoke the Bible, they are often seeking to invoke a deeper Biblical truth, one that represents a singularity of message and meaning. In other words, in order for the Bible to work as a prop, it needs to function like a sledgehammer. "Nobody wants a wishy-washy authority," Baden says.
Our religious traditions have taught us to read the Bible this way. Since we are conditioned to search the Bible for one meaning, we have lost the ability to be careful readers.
In the video below, Baden does something radically different. He walks us through the two contradictory creation accounts in Genesis. On what day did God create the plants and the birds and land and sea and Adam and Eve? If you read Genesis I and II back-to-back you are bound to be thoroughly confused. So why couldn't the authors of the Bible get their stories straight?
"Whoever put these stories together effectively privileged form over content," Baden says. The Bible's author "was willing to sacrifice easy meaning and singularity of perspective for the presence in scripture of multiple perspectives." The author was "happier with an incomprehensible plot - an impossible story - than to have to give up one of these two viewpoints."
And so if we are to continue to invest as much authority in the Bible as we do, Baden says, we - as serious readers of the text - cannot pretend that the Bible is a single, clear statement of belief. Rather, "it is a jumble of beliefs," Baden says, "a combination of voices...embedded in the text right from the word 'Go.'"
So of what use is the Bible? This book is both the ultimate source of authority and completely indecisive. But that does not mean we should throw it away, Baden says. "This text that our culture holds most sacred is a living reminder that human interaction is founded on dialogue and not monologue - the inclusion of differences, not their exclusion.
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