Michio Kaku is a futurist, popularizer of science, and theoretical physicist, as well as a bestselling author and the host of two radio programs. He is the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory), and continues Einstein’s search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory. He holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics and a joint appointment at City College of New York and the Graduate Center of C.U.N.Y. He is also a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.
Kaku launched his Big Think blog, "Dr. Kaku's Universe," in March 2010.
Question: Have human beings stopped evolving? Will humans look any different in the future? (Submitted by Kiran Uttarkar)
Michio Kaku: Kiran, if you read science fiction you might think that humans in the future will be slender, short, bald, with big heads and big eyes that sort of the stereotype that you get from the comic books. However, you have to realize that as far a gross evolutionary pressure is concerned; there is none anymore on the human race. For example, in the old days, when we lived in the forests, there was enormous selection and pressures placed on us to develop a large brain, to understand how to use tools, to run, to be able to navigate, to survive in the forests. Enormous pressures on us because if you were not fit to live in the forest, you died. And so your genes are not here today.
But how much evolutionary pressure is being placed on us today? Well, first of all, there are no more Australias. Australia is a content that broke off from the other continents and it evolved very rapidly because it diverged from the rest of the evolutionary tree. There are no more Australias anymore.
In the sense, we have jet airplanes. You can jet airplane… you can go pretty much anywhere on the planet earth, meet people, have children and your genes are now spread throughout the planet earth. We no longer have any isolated pockets, like Australia, which would accelerate human evolution. Now, evolution is still taking place, it takes place every time two people mate. It takes place inside our bodies, in our immune systems, in our body chemistry. Evolution is still taking place. But gross evolution, that is, evolution that will give us big brains, big eyes, bald heads and little bodies, that kind of gross evolution is pretty much gone.
Now, that doesn’t mean that we can’t have genetic engineering. That’s many decades away. At the present time, we can only manipulate perhaps one gene at a time. It is a very painful process, we cannot, for example, create a pig with wings, that would require thousands of genes being manipulated. And we simply don’t have that technology. We only manipulate one gene at a time.
So I think we are many, many decades away from being able to actually influence human evolution. So in other words, chances are, decades from now, we’ll look pretty much the same.
Michio Kaku: In the entire universe the two greatest scientific mysteries are first of all the origin of the universe itself. And second of all the origin of intelligence. Believe it or not, sitting on our...