Objects in lucid dreams are perceived as real, study discovers
It's all about smooth pursuit.
- While lucid dreaming, we use the same eye movement patterns as when we observe physical actions.
- However, we use different eye patterns when we imagine movement.
- Researchers believe this might help add to our understanding of consciousness.
In 2016, Dr. Tadas Stumbrys discovered that lucid dreaming helps improve physical performance. Dividing volunteers into four groups, lucid dreamers outperformed the physical practice and mental rehearsal groups by statistically significant margins. As he said at the time, "A recent brain imaging study showed that brain activity in the sensorimotor cortex that is responsible for controlling our physical movements is similar during imagined and lucidly dreamed movement, thereby allowing motor learning to occur."
We've long known that imagining movements are their own sort of "practice," but an interesting new study, published in Nature Communications, confirms that we use the same eye movement patterns when we lucid dream as when we observe physically actions, but not when we imagine movement.
Three researchers — Stanford University's Philip Zimbardo and Stephen LaBerge; the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Benjamin Baird — tackled the longtime question of whether dreaming mimics perception or imagination, finally proving the former. They accomplished this by tracking the "smooth pursuit" eye movements of seven volunteers, each of whom spent between one and eight nights in their laboratory.
To understand smooth pursuit you can try this experiment: Track your index finger, held out at arm's length, from left to right several times. Your eyes follow the pattern in a reliably smooth pattern. On the contrary, when you try to imagine the same exact movement, your eyes will not flow smoothly left to right, but jump ahead to particular points. This is due to your saccadic system, a name derived from the French word for "jolt." In both lucid dreaming and awakened perception, your smooth pursuit system is engaged.
The researchers write that vividness relies on intensity of neural activation. Imagining images compete with our normal sensory process, but when asleep our sensory input system — absorbing the world around us — is suppressed. External objects that could bombard our perception processes are eliminated. They continue,
Our findings suggest that, in this respect, the visual imagery that occurs during REM sleep is more similar to perception than imagination. . . . Under conditions of low levels of competing sensory input and high levels of activation in extrastriate visual cortices (conditions associated with REM sleep), the intensity of neural activation underlying the imagery of visual motion (and therefore its vividness) is able to reach levels typically only associated with waking perception.
Beyond solving a longtime debate tracing back to Aristotle, the researchers believe this research is another piece in helping solve the consciousness puzzle. Seasoned lucid dreamers — it's a skill you can actually practice — have the ability to control their actions while unconscious. This link between consciousness and neurophysiological processes adds another intriguing layer to the link between our waking and sleeping lives. The more we study that link, the more we find out that the two states are not as separate as imagined.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Just before I turned 60, I discovered that sharing my story by drawing could be an effective way to both alleviate my symptoms and combat that stigma.
I've lived much of my life with anxiety and depression, including the negative feelings – shame and self-doubt – that seduced me into believing the stigma around mental illness: that people knew I wasn't good enough; that they would avoid me because I was different or unstable; and that I had to find a way to make them like me.
A joint study by two England universities explores the link between sex and cognitive function with some surprising differences in male and female outcomes in old age.
- A joint study by the universities of Coventry and Oxford in England has linked sexual activity with higher cognitive abilities in older age.
- The results of this study suggest there are significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing/word recall in men. In women, however, there was a significant association between sexual activity in word recall alone - number sequencing was not impacted.
- The differences in testosterone (the male sex hormone) and oxytocin (a predominantly female hormone) may factor into why the male cognitive level changes much more during sexual activity in older age.
Mathematicians studied 100 billion tweets to help computer algorithms better understand our colloquial digital communication.