from the world's big
Resurrected tech: How discarded devices are recycled across the globe
Technology best serves the user when organic development combines necessity with collective values.
RAMESH SRINIVASAN: We are at an incredible moment right now where billions of people across the world have access to the internet in very different ways. In many cases more different than similar, often through their mobile phones. A couple billion people or so have access to Google and Facebook services as well. So that kind of perpetuates the myth that spreading internet access is somehow evangelizing or emancipatory. All we need to do is get everybody connected to our services, right? And that's a myth and sort of a corporate branding strategy that is pushed out of Silicon Valley but it's also pushed out of Chinese technology companies, as well. And what that does is actually flatten and objectify the vast majority of people who are internet users, which is astonishing because if you actually experience the joys that I have in Beyond the Valley to actually go to these different parts of the world and look at what people are actually doing with technology, you see so much creativity.
You actually see innovation in action. Innovation from this perspective isn't about just blindly using some technology that was introduced in Silicon Valley that in many cases was introduced to die. Like Apple introduces phones with planned obsolescence, with an expiration date so they go into landfills and potentially cause cancer. Much like Monsanto introduces seeds to die. So what is happening across the world? This is an example of innovation in the bottom up sense. It's actually the idea of doing more with less which is actually like being resourceful. It's a whole other model of thinking what innovation is. Innovation with constraint. Innovation with scarcity. So let me give you a couple of quick examples of this.
Probably my favorite chapter of Beyond the Valley is the story of these indigenous peoples in communities that I've been working with the last few years. Mainly just writing about and learning from in the Oaxaca region of southern Mexico. These are Zapotec, Mixtec and Mixe communities. And they want cell phone service and, of course, they're not worth the investment to not only internet service providers but also mobile service providers like Carlos Slim from Telcel, one of the wealthiest men in the world. So they said hey, we want these mobile phones for various reasons and I can elaborate on that. But we want it on our terms rather than being dependent on the terms of these large distant corporations that don't even see us as worth the investment. So what did they do? They built it themselves. Community-owned cell phone networks. So what's occurring across this region - dozens of communities have built the largest community-owned cell phone set of federated networks, autonomous networks, in the world.
Thousands of users. And here's the key point. These networks are built collectively by these indigenous communities. These networks are designed based on values, even cosmologies and political philosophies of commonality. Everybody doing it together. They call it "comunalidad" or "dequio," which means good work. These are sort of concepts of collectivity which we all have as humans, the love of collectivity. But sometimes we ignore that and we get stuck in individualistic like silos. So they're building it together. They own the network. They're designing the network. They're monetizing the network. The network is allowing them to speak in their traditional languages of which there are dozens. Zapotec, Mixtec and Mixe – different families of languages. They're even communicating using these phones with relatives who are in the Los Angeles area where I'm a professor. So it's incredible for me to see them make the call on one end in the rainforests, in the cloud forests actually, of the Oaxaca region and on the other end see how people are receiving these calls on the other end.
And a lot of this comes out of a technological movement that is highly underreported and under-known even though it's so powerful. Community radio. They're all over the world when you go there. I've seen this in multiple continents. I've been to over 70 countries looking at some of these issues. Sometimes it was just for fun but sometimes it was like research, if you will. And you see people administrating and creating community radio stations because they're inexpensive, they're oral. A lot of languages have been discriminated against being written and they're able to be managed by people in places. They can kind of govern the technology. So the idea of the technologies of tomorrow layered onto the mindset and ideas of community radio is a very interesting, different kind of alternative pathway for technology. So that's one example I'd like to share.
A second example I'd like to share occurs and again it's a very similar to the examples of community telephony or even community wi-fi networks and we see that occurring all over the world – what we call mesh network technology. These are communities that are trying to think about how they can kind of recover technologies. I mentioned earlier how Apple technologies and many phones are designed to die. So where do those things go? We don't even think about that usually in the West. In many cases they end up in places like Ghana in landfills. Greenpeace has done some great video work on this, showing how people are going into these dumps and trying to extract metals and contracting cancer as a result. But in East Africa, and you actually see this in many parts of the world, people are taking dead technologies, opening them up and creating new technologies out of that. This is a concept that they call "jua kali." My pronunciation isn't great. In Swahili, which basically is translated to "hot sun", because basically what you see – and you actually see this in Latin America, South Asia, et cetera. People setting up tables, soldering guns, opening up technologies and making them work again or bringing technologies together.
Like different parts of mobile phones are brought to create new mobile phones. This is a concept of recycling, of repair and resourcefulness that we don't even begin to imagine when we sign onto blind contracts that are built upon the absence of sustainability. So that's one, and it blew my mind and I describe this in Beyond the Valley to see this occurring not just with phones but with 3D printers. People are taking recycled, dumpstered parts and kind of rigging these things together to create 3D printers. This is happening in Nairobi. A group called AB3D, Africa Born 3D. It's not completely recycled parts but largely. They've built 3D printers and have a sustainable business. They call themselves jua kali and they say hey, but we now have a roof because they built a sustainable business. But the key with these businesses is they aren't extractive. They're not blind. They're not ignorant. They're not socially unaccountable. They're built upon the environments and communities within which they exist. So they have actually built 3D printers that are obviously a fraction of the cost of American printers but they perform better. Why is that? Because they're built by people, for people in the environments where they live.
So this idea of decentralizing technology governance – hardware, software, what have you - is very, very powerful, is very promising and more than anything what it opens up to me is it moves past this flattened objectified category of thinking of people who are engaging with the internet and new technology as users, and instead thinking of them as innovators.
- How are global innovators overcoming the inequality that is forged in the technologies of Silicon Valley?
- Ramesh Srinivasan, a professor at UCLA, points to examples of indigenous communities in Mexico that have created their own cell phone networks, as well as groups in Ghana and Nairobi that recycle discarded devices from the West to make entirely new technologies.
- These groups have successfully decentralized technology governance by using their resources and upping the ante on creativity and innovation.
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Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.
A time for sleep<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="Mt29uUqI" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="931343dee3c02121445e51e94ba22446"> <div id="botr_Mt29uUqI_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/Mt29uUqI-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/Mt29uUqI-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/Mt29uUqI-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>Previous studies had already suggested a link between persistent nightmares in childhood and psychosis and borderline personality disorder (BPD) by adolescence, but researchers at the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology wanted to see if a similar connection existed between these mental disorders and other childhood behavioral sleep problems.</p><p>To do this, they scoured data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal cohort study that followed approximately 14,000 children born in Avon, England, in the early 1990s. The study followed the children for more than 13 years. During that time, mothers filled out questionnaires asking about the children's lives. Factors looked at included housing, parenting, nutrition, physical health, mental wellbeing, environmental exposures, and so on. </p><p>The cohort study inquired about sleep routines, sleep duration, and awakening frequency when the children were 6, 18, and 30 months old, and then again at 3.5, 4.8, and 5.8 years. It also assessed mental health in adolescence using semi-structured interviews, such as the Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview.</p><p>"We know that adolescence is a key developmental period to study the onset of many mental disorders, including psychosis or BPD. This is because of particular brain and hormonal changes which occur at this stage," <a href="https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/staff/profiles/psychology/marwaha-steven.aspx" target="_blank">Steven Marwaha</a>, professor of psychiatry at Birmingham and senior author on the study, <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200701125431.htm" target="_blank">said in a release</a>. "Sleep may be one of the most important underlying factors—and it's one that we can influence with effective, early interventions, so it's important that we understand these links."</p><p>After compiling the data, the researchers discovered an association between children with irregular sleeping patterns and teenagers with <a href="https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/psychosis/about-psychosis/" target="_blank">psychotic experiences</a>—that is, episodes when the person perceives reality differently than those around them. Even when depression at 10 years old was considered as a mediating factor, their findings still suggested "a specific pathway between these childhood sleep problems and adolescent psychotic experiences." </p><p>Toddlers with shorter nighttime sleep duration and late bedtimes were likewise associated with a <a href="https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/borderline-personality-disorder/index.shtml" target="_blank">borderline personality disorder</a>—a disorder marked by a pattern of varying moods, self-images, and behaviors—in their teenage years. Depression at age 10 did not mediate this particular association, suggesting a separate and more specific pathway. </p>
A more restful tomorrow<p>While the sample size was large and mental health was assessed with a validated interview, there nevertheless remain limitations to this data. For starters, sleep habits were based on mothers' reports. Because they came from memory, versus a more direct observation method such as actigraphy, these data may be prone to imperfect recollection and reporting error. There are also many confounders that could be secretly nudging the results, such as family conditions, prenatal medicines, and a host of environmental factors. Finally, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024884/#:~:text=Sleep%20difficulties%20in%20youth%20with,fear%20of%20dark%20%5B13%5D." target="_blank">the relationship between sleep problems and mental disorders</a> is both complex and two-way.</p><p>As such, the study shows an association between poor childhood sleep later mental disorders but does not prove a causal link. Parents need not worry that a string of nightmares or the eternal struggle settle into bed will be the first ingredients in a witches' brew of debilitating mental disorders. The goal of the study, the researchers point out, is not to create undue worry but improve our ability to recognize the signs of at-risk children and deliver necessary interventions earlier.</p><p>"The results of this study could have important implications for helping practitioners identify children who might be at higher risk for psychotic experiences or BPD symptoms in adolescence, and potentially lead to the design of more effectively targeted sleep or psychological interventions to prevent the onset or attenuate these mental disorders," Isabel Morales-Muñoz, the study's lead researcher, <a href="https://www.healio.com/news/psychiatry/20200702/childhood-sleep-problems-linked-to-adolescent-psychosis-borderline-personality-disorder#:~:text=Sleep%20problems%20during%20early%20childhood,study%20published%20in%20JAMA%20Psychiatry." target="_blank">told Healio Psychiatry</a><u>.</u></p><p>If a parent reading this is worried that their child's sleep patterns are deleterious, the take away should not be despair over an unyielding fate. It should be to seek professional help as soon as possible to begin improving sleep duration and quality. Even if you aren't worried, it's worth remembering that childhood experiences lay the foundation for a lifetime of salubrious sleeping habits. It's so much more than beauty rest.</p>
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.