Hey Bill Nye! What If Life Had Evolved From Viruses?
Evolutionary biologists generally agree that humans evolved from a bacteria-like ancestor, rather than a viral one. But what if we're chemically connected?
Bill Nye, scientist, engineer, comedian, author, and inventor, is a man with a mission: to help foster a scientifically literate society, to help people everywhere understand and appreciate the science that makes our world work. Making science entertaining and accessible is something Bill has been doing most of his life.
In Seattle Nye began to combine his love of science with his flair for comedy, when he won the Steve Martin look-alike contest and developed dual careers as an engineer by day and a stand-up comic by night. Nye then quit his day engineering day job and made the transition to a night job as a comedy writer and performer on Seattle’s home-grown ensemble comedy show “Almost Live.” This is where “Bill Nye the Science Guy®” was born. The show appeared before Saturday Night Live and later on Comedy Central, originating at KING-TV, Seattle’s NBC affiliate.
While working on the Science Guy show, Nye won seven national Emmy Awards for writing, performing, and producing. The show won 18 Emmys in five years. In between creating the shows, he wrote five children’s books about science, including his latest title, “Bill Nye’s Great Big Book of Tiny Germs.”
Nye is the host of three currently-running television series. “The 100 Greatest Discoveries” airs on the Science Channel. “The Eyes of Nye” airs on PBS stations across the country.
Bill’s latest project is hosting a show on Planet Green called “Stuff Happens.” It’s about environmentally responsible choices that consumers can make as they go about their day and their shopping. Also, you’ll see Nye in his good-natured rivalry with his neighbor Ed Begley. They compete to see who can save the most energy and produce the smallest carbon footprint. Nye has 4,000 watts of solar power and a solar-boosted hot water system. There’s also the low water use garden and underground watering system. It’s fun for him; he’s an engineer with an energy conservation hobby.
Nye is currently the Executive Director of The Planetary Society, the world’s largest space interest organization.
Viewer: Hey Bill. I'm just curious, what would life look like if it had evolved from viruses instead of bacteria?
Bill Nye: Maybe life did evolve from viruses and we just don't know it. However, it sure looks like bacteria went off on their own. And talking some more about me, in my book Undeniable, which I like to think of as a primer on evolution, I speculated that viruses should have their own domain of life, the vera, which in the Latin would be a second declension noun. In Latin apparently they did not have a plural of virus, they never needed one, they never used it in the way we use it today. So I don't know if life evolved from viruses, but in my own experience I am thoroughly charmed by the science fiction story Andromeda Strain where the compartmentalization of the chemicals needed for life was done with crystals rather than with membranes. And it's science fiction everybody, but bacteria are different from viruses in that bacteria have these separate structures whereas viruses seem to be a single molecule, what you might think of as a single molecule. And so viruses are more akin to proteins than they are to bacteria, but proteins are created by bacteria so it is very reasonable that there is some ancestor to viruses and bacteria so that they have in common a common chemical ancestor. Proving that seems to me it should be possible.
When I was growing up people celebrated and questioned and thought hard about the Miller Urey experiment or Urey Miller experiment done by these two scientists who tried to create the conditions of the primordial earth in a big glass flask. And apparently the one thing they didn't all the way figure out was sulfur, which now people generally believe would have come into the earth's atmosphere from volcanoes.
I was in school at Cornell University I walked into the Space Sciences Building when Carl Sagan was very active and teaching classes and stuff and they had the Urey Miller experiment running. It was a big glass flask with these electrodes sparking because it was presumed or is presumed that in the ancient atmosphere there was lightning and this electricity could cause chemical changes that would have been very, very fast. And so the idea is that you would look for or try to create molecules that through their natural existence created copies of themselves. And so that was the goal.
It turns out that creating amino acids, these are biological molecules that have a carbon with a double bond and an oxygen on the side, amino acids aren't apparently that hard to create. And we find them in asteroids and we find them all over the earth and scientist or chemists have been able to create amino acids that have the same pattern but don't exist in nature or we haven't found them in living systems, instead they're very similar but we don't find them in nature. So all this makes me think that it is reasonable that someone could create something akin to these primordial atmosphere primordial conditions on earth experiments that would make molecules that replicated themselves. And we would find that maybe there is a common ancestor to both viruses and bacteria. Whoa. Would that molecule be dangerous? Would it be like the super virus or the super bacterium? Intuitively I don't think so because we're all here. Whatever happened happened and it didn't kill us. So maybe you'll be the guy that figures out the Urey Miller and the next step, the next step of Urey Miller, the next step of self-replicating molecules with primordial components. It is a very compelling idea. Keep us posted.
What would life look like if it had evolved from viruses instead of bacteria? Maybe it’s what you see in the mirror, jokes Bill Nye – before setting the record straight. Most evolutionary biologists agree that bacteria-like organisms are the ancestors of humans. About two billion years ago, eukaryotes forked off from bacteria, eventually giving shape to humans, animals, plants and fungi. It’s anyone’s guess what kind of organism you’d get from the evolution of viruses but, says Nye, it’s very reasonable that there is a common chemical ancestor for both viruses and bacteria, and if someone wanted to roll up their sleeves, it would be possible to prove it. Bill Nye's most recent book is Unstoppable: Harnessing Science to Change the World.
Bill Nye's most recent book is Unstoppable: Harnessing Science to Change the World.
The private sector may need the Outer Space Treaty to be updated before it can make any claims to celestial bodies or their resources.
- The Outer Space Treaty, which was signed in 1967, is the basis of international space law. Its regulations set out what nations can and cannot do, in terms of colonization and enterprise in space.
- One major stipulation of the treaty is that no nation can individually claim or colonize any part of the universe—when the US planted a flag on the Moon in 1969, it took great pains to ensure the world it was symbolic, not an act of claiming territory.
- Essentially to do anything in space, as a private enterprise, you have to be able to make money. When it comes to asteroid mining, for instance, it would be "astronomically" expensive to set up such an industry. The only way to get around this would be if the resources being extracted were so rare you could sell them for a fortune on Earth.
Scientists discover the inner workings of an effect that will lead to a new generation of devices.
- Researchers discover a method of extracting previously unavailable information from superconductors.
- The study builds on a 19th-century discovery by physicist Edward Hall.
- The research promises to lead to a new generation of semiconductor materials and devices.
A new immunotherapy treatment is showing positive signs in early-stage clinical trials.
- Clinical trials of an immunotherapy treatment for breast cancer showed positive signs, and the researchers hope to move to larger trials in coming years.
- Immunotherapies train the body's immune system to find and kill cancer cells without harming healthy cells.
- Recent trials of immunotherapies for other cancers have also showed positive signs.