Are you distracted at work? Don’t blame technology.

Distraction at work is a symptom of cultural dysfunction, not a symptom of technology, as many people claim.

NIR EYAL: So when I was researching my book, Indistractable, I constantly heard of folks telling me how the workplace is this source of constant distraction—whether it's the fact that people work in open-floor-plan offices or the constant ping and ding of emails or group chat channels.

One of the tools I heard mentioned most often as people complained about the technology that keeps them tethered to the work was a product called Slack. Slack is the world's largest group chat app and so I decided to pay Slack a visit. And what I discovered when I went to visit Slack headquarters is that Slack somehow doesn't suffer from this problem of distraction. I mean, you would think if technology was the source of the problem, if Slack was causing people to get distracted, the people at Slack who use the product more than anyone on Earth should be more distracted than anyone. But that's not what I found. At six o'clock the office was empty and on nights and weekends it turns out people who work at Slack are chastised if they use the product outside of working hours. Well why is that? It's because technology is not the root cause of distraction at work. That's what I discovered in my five years of research is that distraction at work is a symptom of cultural dysfunction.

Companies that have a healthy workplace culture portray three attributes.
First, they give employees psychological safety. The ability to raise their hand, to raise concerns and say, hey, something is not working out here. Can we talk about this problem without fear of retribution, without fear that they might get fired for voicing a concern?

The second attribute of these companies with a healthy workplace culture is that they give employees a forum to talk about their concerns. So, at Slack, they actually use their own technology to give employees this forum. They have these Slack channels—one of them is called Beef Tweets where any employee can post a complaint, a concern or a comment about the company and company management will acknowledge they have seen those concerns with—get this—an emoji; an eye emoji or a checkmark emoji lets employees know that their concerns are acknowledged and being handled.

And then finally, and perhaps the most important attribute of these companies with a healthy workplace culture when it comes to distraction is that management displays what it means to become indistractable. They're fully present with their employees as opposed to being on their device during meetings. They show employees what it means to do focused work by tuning out distraction, turning off all those external triggers and not working 24/7 and perpetuating this terrible cycle of responsiveness.

So if we are to do our best work what we need to acknowledge in corporate America today is that we have to give people the time to do reflective as opposed to simply reactive work. That reacting to emails and meetings all day long doesn't give people the time to have the focus to do their best work.

So the lesson here is that technology in the workplace is not causing these problems. It is nothing but the proximal cause. The real source of the problem is a dysfunctional workplace culture where people can't talk about this problem of distraction just as they can't talk about all kinds of other problems in the workplace. But when we give employees psychological safety, a forum to talk about these issues as well as displaying for employees what it means to become indistractable, this is where we give people the opportunity to do their best work.

  • After hearing so many people blame email and Slack as causes of distraction in the workplace, Nir Eyal went to the Slack offices and discovered it to be a focus-driven office with excellent work-life boundaries. Tech isn't the problem, he concluded. The root cause of workplace distraction is cultural dysfunction.
  • Companies that have a healthy workplace culture create psychological safety for their employees to voice concerns and complaints. When issues can be resolved—without fear of punishment—employees are able to return to work rather than sit and seethe.
  • Importantly, leaders must also model indistractibility by giving undivided attention to people in meetings and not working 24/7, which Eyal describes as a "terrible" cycle of reaction. Reacting to emails and meetings all day long doesn't give people the time to be reflective—to focus and do their best work.



China's "artificial sun" sets new record for fusion power

China has reached a new record for nuclear fusion at 120 million degrees Celsius.

Credit: STR via Getty Images
Technology & Innovation

This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.

China wants to build a mini-star on Earth and house it in a reactor. Many teams across the globe have this same bold goal --- which would create unlimited clean energy via nuclear fusion.

But according to Chinese state media, New Atlas reports, the team at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has set a new world record: temperatures of 120 million degrees Celsius for 101 seconds.

Yeah, that's hot. So what? Nuclear fusion reactions require an insane amount of heat and pressure --- a temperature environment similar to the sun, which is approximately 150 million degrees C.

If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it.

If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it. In nuclear fusion, the extreme heat and pressure create a plasma. Then, within that plasma, two or more hydrogen nuclei crash together, merge into a heavier atom, and release a ton of energy in the process.

Nuclear fusion milestones: The team at EAST built a giant metal torus (similar in shape to a giant donut) with a series of magnetic coils. The coils hold hot plasma where the reactions occur. They've reached many milestones along the way.

According to New Atlas, in 2016, the scientists at EAST could heat hydrogen plasma to roughly 50 million degrees C for 102 seconds. Two years later, they reached 100 million degrees for 10 seconds.

The temperatures are impressive, but the short reaction times, and lack of pressure are another obstacle. Fusion is simple for the sun, because stars are massive and gravity provides even pressure all over the surface. The pressure squeezes hydrogen gas in the sun's core so immensely that several nuclei combine to form one atom, releasing energy.

But on Earth, we have to supply all of the pressure to keep the reaction going, and it has to be perfectly even. It's hard to do this for any length of time, and it uses a ton of energy. So the reactions usually fizzle out in minutes or seconds.

Still, the latest record of 120 million degrees and 101 seconds is one more step toward sustaining longer and hotter reactions.

Why does this matter? No one denies that humankind needs a clean, unlimited source of energy.

We all recognize that oil and gas are limited resources. But even wind and solar power --- renewable energies --- are fundamentally limited. They are dependent upon a breezy day or a cloudless sky, which we can't always count on.

Nuclear fusion is clean, safe, and environmentally sustainable --- its fuel is a nearly limitless resource since it is simply hydrogen (which can be easily made from water).

With each new milestone, we are creeping closer and closer to a breakthrough for unlimited, clean energy.

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