You should change your area of expertise every 10 years. Here’s why.

To have breakthrough ideas, try veering off your original field of study.

LEE SMOLIN: People often speak of the beginner's mind, this wonderful ability of people, when they come new to a subject, to have an idea, to see something that's novel, that everybody else has missed that leads to a breakthrough. And this is a thing of beauty. I've experienced it myself, which I am very fortunate to say. And I have observed it a few times in my career in other people's work.

But here is the thing that I think is not true. What's not true is that it's tied, necessarily, to age so that you only get one shot. There is a thing that physicists often say. You see, all these great discoveries, like Newton-- Newton was 22, and then 24. Einstein was 26. Heisenberg was 23. Bohr was 28, et cetera.

So there is this tendency to say, you've got to have not only a fresh mind, but a young mind. And let me tell you what Chandrasekhar, who was one of the great astrophysicists of the 20th century-- indeed, of every time-- said to me when he was in his late 70s. He said, most people say that you only get one chance, and then you-- then you get in the way. Then you're useless. But he didn't think that was true, and it wasn't true in his own life.

You just had to change your subject every 10 years. So every 10 years, Chandra took the last 10 years of work, wrote a textbook, put all the calculations and all his notes in a box, put them on a shelf, and walked out and looked for something else to study. Somebody else in the domain of physics and astronomy and so forth. Because that's what he was interested in. But something completely different.

And then 10 years later, he was the master of a field. He put-- he wrote the book, he put it in a box. He put it on the shelf. And he was still doing this when he was in his late 70s, and indeed, into his 80s. And so I think it's very important to take Chandrasekhar seriously and change.

In my own life, I have always wanted to work on quantum gravity, and I've always wanted to work on quantum foundations. And I even have some themes that go through most of my thinking, most of my work. But I change direction. I change point of view. I change approach. That's why I'm not -- unlike Chandrasekhar who is my dear, dear, close friend, I don't stay on the same subject.

  • People often mistake young minds as having a prerogative in making great scientific discoveries. However, finding innovative solutions is less a matter of youth and more about having a fresh take on things, a subject.
  • One tip in developing innovative solutions is to venture off from your original field of study — in that tangent, you'll be able to grasp things with a "fresh" take. You may be able to spot incongruities or connections that others have overlooked because of their overfamiliarity.
  • To keep your mind constantly engaged, perhaps even to recapture a sense of wonder, change up the subject you're most engrossed in.

Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum


Are passwords obsolete? Thoughts from a famous fraudster.

In the next two to three years we'll see passwords go away in a way that's long overdue.

Videos
  • When we look at online breaches, about 86 percent of the time the hacks have to do with passwords. Because of this, many security experts believe we need to move away from using them.
  • Consequently, we've now developed the technology to do just that. For instance, we now have a technology called Trusona — it stands for "true persona." The technology recognizes the individual, more accurately, based on their device.
  • Many industries are already switching to this method of identity verification. Airlines are already switching, banks are switching, universities, too, are switching.
Keep reading Show less

Yale scientists restore cellular function in 32 dead pig brains

Researchers hope the technology will further our understanding of the brain, but lawmakers may not be ready for the ethical challenges.

Still from John Stephenson's 1999 rendition of Animal Farm.
Surprising Science
  • Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine successfully restored some functions to pig brains that had been dead for hours.
  • They hope the technology will advance our understanding of the brain, potentially developing new treatments for debilitating diseases and disorders.
  • The research raises many ethical questions and puts to the test our current understanding of death.
Keep reading Show less

Heart attacks and canker sores: why we need to take oral health seriously

Your microbiome begins in your mouth. Why don't we look there more often?

Photo by Carl D. Walsh/Portland Portland Press Herald via Getty Images
Surprising Science
  • Eighty percent of patients who've had heart attacks have gum disease, says Dr. Shahrzad Fattahi.
  • Oral health is also implicated in forms of cancer, dementia, canker sores, and more.
  • Fattahi says the future of medicine must also focus on saliva, as a whole new field of salivary diagnostics is emerging.
Keep reading Show less