Gravitational Wave Astronomy: When Stars Die, New Sciences Are Born
Get ready for a decade of scientific revelations. Thanks to gravity waves, we have a completely new way to explore the universe.
Alex Filippenko is the Richard & Rhoda Goldman Distinguished Professor in the Physical Sciences. His accomplishments, documented in more than 800 research papers, have been recognized by several major prizes, including a share of both the Gruber Cosmology Prize (2007) and the Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2015). One of the world's most highly cited astronomers, he is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences (2009) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2015). He has won the most prestigious teaching awards at UC Berkeley and has also been voted the "Best Professor" on campus a record 9 times. Selected in 2006 as the Carnegie/CASE National Professor of the Year among doctoral institutions, he has also received the Richard H. Emmons Award for undergraduate teaching (2010). He produced five astronomy video courses with "The Great Courses" (see below), coauthored an award-winning astronomy textbook, and appears in more than 100 TV documentaries, including about 50 episodes of "The Universe" series. He has given nearly 1000 public lectures or other presentations, was awarded the 2004 Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization, and received the prestigious Hertz Foundation fellowship for his PhD studies at The California Institute of Technology.
Filippenko is the only person who was a member of both the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-z Supernova Search Team, which used observations of extragalactic supernovae to discover the accelerating universe and its implied existence of dark energy. The discovery was voted the top science breakthrough of 1998 by Science magazine] and resulted in the 2011 Nobel prize for physics being awarded to the leaders of the two project teams.
Filippenko developed and runs the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT), a fully robotic telescope which conducts the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS), the most successful nearby supernova search. He is also a member of the Nuker Team which uses the Hubble space telescope to examine supermassive black holes and determined the relationship between a galaxy's central black hole's mass and velocity dispersion. The Thompson-Reuters "incites" index ranked Filippenko as the most cited researcher in space science for the ten-year period between 1996 and 2006
Alex Filippenko: One of the most exciting discoveries in all of science in the past year—and one in which there will be a lot of progress in the next five years—is the discovery of gravitational waves: ripples in the actual fabric of space time produced when, for example, two massive stars or black holes merge into one.
LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, in September 2015 detected a signal, which, after months of processing, the scientists became convinced was the signature of two black holes merging together 1.3 billion light years away. Now this is absolutely magnificent, because it's a key prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity, his theory of gravity.
It predicts that when two massive, especially dense objects merge together, the dimples that each of them individually form in the shape of space sort of form a spiral pattern that goes outward— a little bit like a water wave when you toss a ball onto a swimming pool. And that wave carries energy and it's extremely difficult to detect, but scientists last year detected it and announced that result, and I was just blown away. Two black holes each having a mass of about 30 times the mass of the sun merging together. It's just fantastic.
And a couple of more events of that sort have been detected since then black holes merging together. As the scientists and engineers perfect this technique even more, they will be able to study merging neutron stars and other kinds of astrophysical objects.
And this will allow us to study them in a way that's simply not possible with light with electromagnetic radiation, because gravitational waves are not a form of electric and magnetic fields oscillating in space, instead they're an actual ripple, a little thingy going out in the shape of space, and with the passage of time showing that Einstein's idea that massive objects really do form a distinct dimple, which then forms a ripple of two of these things merge or if one of them explodes or something like that.
This theory really is correct, and it took a century to show that that's true. Now, the precision of the measurement is just mind-boggling. It's by far the most precise measurement ever made by anyone. They had to measure the distances of a length of, well I don't want to get into the details now, but of their device—Their device had two four-kilometer length arms and they had to measure the length of those arms to a precision of 1/1000th of a proton.
Now a proton is yay big, and I exaggerate a lot. So this four-kilometer length arm changed in length a tiny bit as this gravitational wave was passing through, and they had to measure this change of 1/1000th of a proton. It's as though you were measuring the distance of the nearest star, which is 4.2 light years or 40 million million kilometers (40 trillion kilometers), to the width of a human hair. That's the kind of precision we're talking about.
Imagine measuring the distance of the nearest star to a precision of the width of a human hair. It's just incredible.
Even though the discovery of gravitational waves was first made in September of 2015 and announced to the world in February of 2016, it's a very young field. There will be more such detections, and we're just beginning to explore the universe in a way where we're completely blind with electromagnetic waves, with light. So I anticipate huge discoveries in the next five to ten years in the field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Alex Filippenko is a Hertz Foundation Fellow and recipient of the prestigious Hertz Foundation Grant for graduate study in the applications of the physical, biological and engineering sciences. When the discovery of gravitational waves was announced in February 2016, Filippenko was awed. The researchers at LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) managed to prove a key prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity: his theory of gravity. Here, Filippenko explains the mind-boggling way they did it, and the scope of discoveries that this hyper-precise technology will reveal to us over the next decade. With the support of the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation, Filippenko pursued a PhD in astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.
The Hertz Foundation mission is to provide unique financial and fellowship support to the nation's most remarkable PhD students in the hard sciences. Hertz Fellowships are among the most prestigious in the world, and the foundation has invested over $200 million in Hertz Fellows since 1963 (present value) and supported over 1,100 brilliant and creative young scientists, who have gone on to become Nobel laureates, high-ranking military personnel, astronauts, inventors, Silicon Valley leaders, and tenured university professors. For more information, visit hertzfoundation.org.
Video meetings on the popular platform don't seem to offer end-to-end encryption as advertised.
- Despite claims, Zoom's video and audio meetings don't support end-to-end encryption, according to a recent report from The Intercept.
- End-to-end encryption is an especially strong form of security that, in theory, scrambles online data so that it's decipherable only to the sender and receiver.
- Zoom also faces a class-action lawsuit after a Motherboard report showed how the platform passed on user data to third parties.
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
The response to the pandemic illustrates five actions we can take to address the global climate change crisis.