Can "Complementary" Currencies Save Us From the Next Crash?

In the wake of the global financial meltdown, economist Bernard Lietaer thinks communities should consider creating their own alternative currencies.

In the wake of a global meltdown that exposed the fragility of our financial system, it's understandable that many people are suspicious of the stability of our centralized monetary systems.

"We have had 97 major banking crashes over the last 25 years, and we have 178 monetary crashes over that same time period," says Belgian currency expert Bernard Lietaer. "Would you not say that’s a sign of something being repeatedly unstable?"

As a result, Lietaer and others are advocating for "complementary" currency systems—alternative monetary devices that run parallel to centralized currencies. These can take the form of local currencies separate from the government, or even organized barter arrangements.

One example of such a currency, says Lietaer, is the Wirtschaftsring (Wir), which was established in 1934 and is used by 75,000 businesses in Switzerland alongside the Swiss franc. He says the Wir has played a crucial role in stabilizing Switzerland's economy: "When you have a recession, there are not enough Swiss francs around to buy things. The number of participants and the volume of transaction in Wir increases, spontaneously, because that's what’s available. People don't have to have a credit line with the banks in order to purchase things."

Lietaer says that larger complementary currencies can also play a social role. The Fureai Kippu is a Japanese communal currency that supports the elderly. One unit is equal to one hour of service to help an elderly person with tasks that are not covered by the national health care system in Japan. The Fureai Kippu parallels the national system on a local level, tracked as a savings account via two computerized clearinghouses. "If you were trying to do that with conventional money, it wouldn’t work. Japan would go bankrupt!" says Lietaer.

So, why haven't other countries taken a hint from the Swiss and Japanese? New York University media studies professor Douglas Rushkoff attributes dearth of open source currency to "centuries and centuries of programming." Our current system of centralized monetary instruments, explains Rushkoff, dates back to the Middle Ages, when peer-to-peer economies flourished. As local currencies thrived, so did the middle class—threatening Europe's aristocracy. Financial experts, hired by the rich to halt the threat, suggested that local currency be outlawed and replaced with a single form of money dubbed "coin of the realm."

"That’s the system that ended up getting passed down to us today," says Rushkoff. "It's part of a six or seven hundred year push for centralization of power." Now, he says, the emergence and prominence of the Internet can allow us to return to peer-to-peer exchanges. "People are starting to realize they can sell things to people through the 'net—they don’t have to work for a company to make money."

But both Rushkoff and Lietaer admit that governments are not keen on the idea that citizens issue their own coin. "I have never met anybody who has the privilege of monopoly who is okay to lose it," says Lietaer.

"If someone really did develop a robust and popular [complementary] currency, I think they’d get killed," says Rushkoff. "This is not an area that you play around with lightly. This is beyond organized crime. This is what people fight wars and stuff over. This is really big. So if in the States, for example, people started to use an organized currency—if it came into real use, beyond the local and hip way it happens in Portland or Ithaca, where hip people are using it for their coffee and pot—if it became robust enough that real people felt good about using it, they would shut it down in a minute. And that’s when you’d have to have a real struggle. That’s when you’d have to look constitutionally: are we allowed to transact? As far as I’m concerned, as long as people are paying taxes on the cash equivalent, then the government really can't complain."

However, Rushkoff says that he doesn’t know of anyone adamantly and publicly against complementary currency, rather, "most bankers and economists just laugh at it." But perhaps they should start paying attention. Rushkoff serves as "Chief Revolutionary Officer" of the site superfluid, a collaborative online system where people exchange services and work together on different projects. Participants credit and debit themselves for the work they perform.

Rushkoff says ultimately these types of alternate currencies are an extension of free market capitalism: "If you’re really going to be a free market capitalist, then you have to have free markets. Just as companies are allowed to compete with each other for providing goods and services, the only way you're going to have great currencies is if the currencies are allowed to compete with one another within one country, so that you can have different tools for different jobs."

More Resources:

— “Complementary Credit Networks and Macro-Economic Stability: Switzerland’s Wirtschaftsring,” 2009 article by James Stodder, at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

— “Beyond Money,” blogs and books by community economist Tom Grekko, author of “The End of Money and the Future of Civilization.”

The International Journal of Community Currency Research

LinkedIn meets Tinder in this mindful networking app

Swipe right to make the connections that could change your career.

Getty Images
Swipe right. Match. Meet over coffee or set up a call.

No, we aren't talking about Tinder. Introducing Shapr, a free app that helps people with synergistic professional goals and skill sets easily meet and collaborate.

Keep reading Show less

People who engage in fat-shaming tend to score high in this personality trait

A new study explores how certain personality traits affect individuals' attitudes on obesity in others.

Mind & Brain
  • The study compared personality traits and obesity views among more than 3,000 mothers.
  • The results showed that the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are linked to more negative views and behaviors related to obesity.
  • People who scored high in conscientiousness are more likely to experience "fat phobia.
Keep reading Show less

The most culturally chauvinist people in Europe? Greeks, new research suggests

Meanwhile, Spaniards are the least likely to say their culture is superior to others.

Image: Pew Research Center
Strange Maps
  • Survey by Pew Research Center shows great variation in chauvinism across Europe.
  • Eight most chauvinist countries are in the east, and include Russia.
  • British much more likely than French (and slightly more likely than Germans) to say their culture is "superior" to others.
Keep reading Show less

Reigning in brutality - how one man's outrage led to the Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions

The history of the Geneva Conventions tells us how the international community draws the line on brutality.

Napoleon III at the Battle of Solferino. Painting by Adolphe Yvon. 1861.
Politics & Current Affairs
  • Henry Dunant's work led to the Red Cross and conventions on treating prisoners humanely.
  • Four Geneva Conventions defined the rules for prisoners of war, torture, naval and medical personnel and more.
  • Amendments to the agreements reflect the modern world but have not been ratified by all countries.
Keep reading Show less