The 2011 K-12 Horizon Report: Too optimistic?
Scott McLeod, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of Kentucky. He also is the Founding Director of the UCEA Center for the Advanced Study of Technology Leadership in Education (CASTLE), the nation’s only academic center dedicated to the technology needs of school administrators, and was a co-creator of the wildly popular video series, Did You Know? (Shift Happens). He has received numerous national awards for his technology leadership work, including recognitions from the cable industry, Phi Delta Kappa, and the National School Boards Association. In Spring 2011 he was a Visiting Canterbury Fellow at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Dr. McLeod blogs regularly about technology leadership issues at Dangerously Irrelevant and Mind Dump, and occasionally at The Huffington Post. He can be reached at scottmcleod.net.
I asked fellow BigThink blogger Kirsten Winkler if she would join me in writing about the recently-released 2011 K-12 Horizon Report. She’s done a nice job of summarizing the six trends highlighted in this year’s report and I encourage you to perhaps read her post before you read this one. I confess that she’s more positive than I am about the state of K-12 educational technology, perhaps because of her start-up perspective.
Although the postsecondary series of Horizon Reports started back in 2004, there only have been three annual reports so far aimed at elementary and secondary educators. Like those aimed at higher (tertiary) education, the K-12 reports attempt to identify “six emerging technologies or practices that are likely to enter mainstream use in the educational community within three adoption horizons over the next one to five years” (2011, p. 3, emphasis added). Here’s what the reports have identified so far for elementary and secondary schools:
According to the three reports, your average educator today should now “be work[ing] across geographic and cultural boundaries more and more frequently, … recogniz[ing] the importance of collaborative work [environments,] and … finding that online tools … provide [her and her] students with opportunities to work creatively, develop teamwork skills, and tap into the perspectives of people around the world with a wide range of experiences and skills that differ from their own” (2009, p. 5). She also should now be using instant messaging, desktop video conferencing, and other online communication tools to open up “a new world of experiences” for students (2009, p. 5). Additionally, mobile computing devices and cloud computing should be on the verge of mainstream educator usage, with augmented reality right around the corner.
I don’t see it happening. Are some teachers doing this? Absolutely. Are more educators doing these things than before? Yes, thank goodness. Are these tools now in the mainstream of K-12 educational practice? Not a chance, except in isolated schools of excellence. We still have too many teachers who have no clue what Google Docs or Twitter are, for example. We still have too many administrators who are blocking mobile learning devices and are fearful of online learning spaces. And so on…
Here’s what I think we have seen instead: mainstream adoption and growth of replicative technologies (i.e., those that allow teachers to mirror traditional educational practices only with more bells and whistles). These are what Hughes, Thomas, & Scharber (2006) would call technology as replacement or, perhaps, technology as amplification. Replicative technologies include, but are not limited to, the following:
Each of these replicative technologies introduces affordances beyond its analog counterpart. The bottom line, however, is that even when digital technologies are used in classrooms or online, we still primarily see learning environments where teachers push out information to student recipients and then assess students’ factual recall and low-level procedural skills (i.e., the stuff you can find on Google in 3 seconds). When the technologies are used, it’s primarily the teacher using them, not the students. They’re teacher-centric tools, not student-centric tools.
Foreseeing the future is admittedly difficult work. In a world that’s changing as quickly as ours, predicting even a few years out is extremely challenging. While commendable, the vision of the Horizon Reports toward more divergent, student-centered uses of technology runs into the realities of school practice and educator belief systems. To the extent that school traditions and desires for control are going down, they’re doing so kicking and screaming all along the way.
Replicative technologies are the easiest for teachers to adopt because they’re the shortest path between current practice and new tool usage. They’re also the easiest for school leaders to stomach because they look fairly familiar and cause less angst regarding perceived issues of pedagogical control and disruption. We would expect replicative technologies to be a natural step along the journey of educators’ technology adoption. The question is whether educator adoption of replicative technologies eventually will lead to more transformative, student-centered uses of digital learning tools or whether the current wave of educator tool usage simply will be replaced by whatever is the next generation of replicative technologies (just as the chalkboard was replaced by the overhead projector, which then was replaced by the interactive whiteboard). I think that question is still open for consideration. Until it gets resolved toward the former rather than the latter, the Horizon Reports will continue to be overly optimistic regarding the pace of adoption in our schools of more disruptive digital learning tools such as game-based learning or personal learning environments.
Here's the science of black holes, from supermassive monsters to ones the size of ping-pong balls.
- There's more than one way to make a black hole, says NASA's Michelle Thaller. They're not always formed from dead stars. For example, there are teeny tiny black holes all around us, the result of high-energy cosmic rays slamming into our atmosphere with enough force to cram matter together so densely that no light can escape.
- CERN is trying to create artificial black holes right now, but don't worry, it's not dangerous. Scientists there are attempting to smash two particles together with such intensity that it creates a black hole that would live for just a millionth of a second.
- Thaller uses a brilliant analogy involving a rubber sheet, a marble, and an elephant to explain why different black holes have varying densities. Watch and learn!
- Bonus fact: If the Earth became a black hole, it would be crushed to the size of a ping-pong ball.
Protected animals are feared to be headed for the black market.
In a breakthrough for nuclear fusion research, scientists at China's Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor have produced temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion on Earth.
- The EAST reactor was able to heat hydrogen to temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius.
- Nuclear fusion could someday provide the planet with a virtually limitless supply of clean energy.
- Still, scientists have many other obstacles to pass before fusion technology becomes a viable energy source.
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