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Solar Orbiter to capture first images of Sun's north, south poles
The spacecraft is set to come closer to the star than any other Sun-facing camera before it.
- Solar Orbiter is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency.
- The mission aims to study the heliosphere, and to uncover information about the Sun's internal structure, magnetic field, and activity cycle.
- Solar Orbiter is set to ascend the ecliptic plane by the end of 2021, when it will begin imaging the Sun.
The Solar Orbiter is set to launch Monday on its mission to study the Sun and photograph its north and south poles for the first time.
The mission is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency that's been nearly two decades in the making. Its primary goal is to help scientists better understand how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, which is the giant bubble-like region of space, formed by the solar wind, that protects our solar system from interstellar radiation. The mission also aims to study the Sun's 11-year activity cycle, magnetic field and internal structure.
Solar Orbiter will orbit the Sun concurrently NASA's Parker Solar Probe, which launched 18 months ago and has flown within 4 million miles of the star. The new spacecraft won't get that close, but it will get a look at the Sun from a unique vantage point: above the ecliptic plane. From there, the orbiter will be able to photograph the star's north and south poles.
"Up until Solar Orbiter, all solar imaging instruments have been within the ecliptic plane or very close to it," Russell Howard, space scientist at the Naval Research Lab in Washington, D.C. and principal investigator for one of Solar Orbiter's ten instruments, told NASA. "Now, we'll be able to look down on the Sun from above."
Scientists aren't quite sure what they'll see.
"There's no rational reasons why the poles shouldn't be different," Mark McCaughrean, senior advisor for science & exploration at ESA, told The Guardian. "Be prepared for surprises."
Studying the Sun from outside the ecliptic plane won't only yield historic images of the star, but it'll also hopefully help scientists better understand and predict solar activity.
"The poles are particularly important for us to be able to model more accurately," said Holly Gilbert, NASA project scientist for the mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "For forecasting space weather events, we need a pretty accurate model of the global magnetic field of the Sun."
To ascend the ecliptic plane by the end of 2021, the Solar Orbiter will fly by Earth and Venus several times, using the two planets' gravity to slingshot itself into an elliptical orbit. The only other spacecraft to travel outside the ecliptic plane was Ulysses, launched in 1990. But Ulysses had no camera. It carried only situ instruments, which measure the environment immediately around the spacecraft.
Solar Orbiter is equipped with 10 instruments: four situ and six remote-sensing tools that can "see" the Sun from afar. (Because these instruments are extremely sensitive, the orbiter was stored in an ultra-clean room before launch; anyone who came near it was required to wear booties and a "bunny suit" to prevent contamination.) The spacecraft aims to travel closer to the star than any other Sun-facing camera. That requires surviving extreme temperatures — both hot and cold.
"Although Solar Orbiter goes quite close to the Sun, it also goes quite far away," Anne Pacros, the payload manager at the European Space Agency's, or ESA's, European Space Research and Technology Centre in the Netherlands, told NASA. "We have to survive both high heat and extreme cold."
To protect its instruments as it comes within 26 million miles of the Sun, Solar Orbiter is equipped with a 324-pound heat shield that can withstand temperatures up to 970 degrees Fahrenheit, which is about one-tenth as hot as the solar surface.
"Five of the remote-sensing instruments look at the Sun through peepholes in that heat shield; one observes the solar wind out to the side," NASA wrote.
Solar Orbiter will work in tandem with the Parker probe.
"As Parker samples solar particles up close, Solar Orbiter will capture imagery from farther away, contextualizing the observations," NASA wrote. "The two spacecraft will also occasionally align to measure the same magnetic field lines or streams of solar wind at different times."
Solar Orbiter is scheduled to turn on its telescopes in November 2021.
"It will capture the imagination like science fiction does and inspire the next generation of scientists and space explorers," Yannis Zouganelis, ESA's deputy project scientist for Solar Orbiter, told The Guardian.
Join multiple Tony and Emmy Award-winning actress Judith Light live on Big Think at 2 pm ET on Monday.
From "if-by-whiskey" to the McNamara fallacy, being able to spot logical missteps is an invaluable skill.
- A fallacy is the use of invalid or faulty reasoning in an argument.
- There are two broad types of logical fallacies: formal and informal.
- A formal fallacy describes a flaw in the construction of a deductive argument, while an informal fallacy describes an error in reasoning.
Appeal to privacy<p>When someone behaves in a way that negatively affects (or could affect) others, but then gets upset when others criticize their behavior, they're likely engaging in the appeal to privacy — or "mind your own business" — fallacy. Examples:<br></p><ul><li>Someone who speeds excessively on the highway, considering his driving to be his own business.</li><li>Someone who doesn't see a reason to bathe or wear deodorant, but then boards a packed 10-hour flight.</li></ul><p>Language to watch out for: "You're not the boss of me." "Worry about yourself."</p>
Sunk cost fallacy<p>When someone argues for continuing a course of action despite evidence showing it's a mistake, it's often a sunk cost fallacy. The flawed logic here is something like: "We've already invested so much in this plan, we can't give up now." Examples:<br></p><ul><li>Someone who intentionally overeats at an all-you-can-eat buffet just to get their "money's worth"</li><li>A scientist who won't admit his theory is incorrect because it would be too painful or costly</li></ul><p>Language to watch out for: "We must stay the course." "I've already invested so much...." "We've always done it this way, so we'll keep doing it this way."</p>
If-by-whiskey<p>This fallacy is named after a speech given in 1952 by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_S._Sweat" target="_blank">Noah S. "Soggy" Sweat, Jr.</a>, a state representative for <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi" target="_blank">Mississippi</a>, on the subject of whether the state should legalize alcohol. Sweat's argument on prohibition was (to paraphrase):<br></p><p><em>If, by whiskey, you mean the devil's brew that causes so many problems in society, then I'm against it. But if whiskey means the oil of conversation, the philosopher's wine, "</em><em>the stimulating drink that puts the spring in the old gentleman's step on a frosty, crispy morning;" then I am certainly for it.</em></p>
Slippery slope<p>This fallacy involves arguing against a position because you think choosing it would start a chain reaction of bad things, even though there's little evidence to support your claim. Example:<br></p><ul><li>"We can't allow abortion because then society will lose its general respect for life, and it'll become harder to punish people for committing violent acts like murder."</li><li>"We can't legalize gay marriage. If we do, what's next? Allowing people to marry cats and dogs?" (Some people actually made this <a href="https://www.daytondailynews.com/news/national/cats-marrying-dogs-and-five-other-things-same-sex-marriage-won-mean/dLV9jKqkJOWUFZrSBETWkK/" target="_blank">argument</a> before same-sex marriage was legalized in the U.S.)</li></ul><p>Of course, sometimes decisions <em>do </em>start a chain reaction, which could be bad. The slippery slope device only becomes a fallacy when there's no evidence to suggest that chain reaction would actually occur.</p><p>Language to watch out for: "If we do that, then what's next?"</p>
"There is no alternative"<p><span style="background-color: initial;">A modification of the </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_dilemma" target="_blank" style="background-color: initial;">false dilemma</a><span style="background-color: initial;">, this fallacy (often abbreviated to TINA) argues for a specific position because there are no realistic alternatives. Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher used this exact line as a slogan to defend capitalism, and it's still used today to that same end: Sure, capitalism has its problems, but we've seen the horrors that occur when we try anything else, so there is no alternative.</span><br></p><p>Language to watch out for: "If I had a magic wand…" "What <em>else</em> are we going to do?!"</p>
Ad hoc arguments<p>An ad hoc argument isn't really a logical fallacy, but it is a fallacious rhetorical strategy that's common and often hard to spot. It occurs when someone's claim is threatened with counterevidence, so they come up with a rationale to dismiss the counterevidence, hoping to protect their original claim. Ad hoc claims aren't designed to be generalizable. Instead, they're typically invented in the moment. <a href="https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Ad_hoc" target="_blank">RationalWiki</a> provides an example:<br></p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">Alice: "It is clearly said in the Bible that the Ark was 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">Bob: "A purely wooden vessel of that size could not be constructed; the largest real wooden vessels were Chinese treasure ships which required iron hoops to build their keels. Even the <em>Wyoming</em> which was built in 1909 and had iron braces had problems with her hull flexing and opening up and needed constant mechanical pumping to stop her hold flooding."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">Alice: "It's possible that God intervened and allowed the Ark to float, and since we don't know what gopher wood is, it is possible that it is a much stronger form of wood than any that comes from a modern tree."</p>
Snow job<p><span style="background-color: initial;">This fallacy occurs when someone doesn't really have a strong argument, so they just throw a bunch of irrelevant facts, numbers, anecdotes and other information at the audience to confuse the issue, making it harder to refute the original claim. Example:</span><br></p><ul><li>A tobacco company spokesperson who is confronted about the health risks of smoking, but then proceeds to show graph after graph depicting many of the other ways people develop cancer, and how cancer metastasizes in the body, etc.</li></ul><p>Watch out for long-winded, data-heavy arguments that seem confusing by design.</p>
McNamara fallacy<p>Named after <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_McNamara" target="_blank">Robert McNamara</a>, the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secretary_of_Defense" target="_blank">U.S. secretary of defense</a> from 1961 to 1968, this fallacy occurs when decisions are made based solely on <em>quantitative metrics or observations,</em> ignoring other factors. It stems from the Vietnam War, in which McNamara sought to develop a formula to measure progress in the war. He decided on bodycount. But this "objective" formula didn't account for other important factors, such as the possibility that the Vietnamese people would never surrender.<br></p><p>You could also imagine this fallacy playing out in a medical situation. Imagine a terminal cancer patient has a tumor, and a certain procedure helps to reduce the size of the tumor, but also causes a lot of pain. Ignoring quality of life would be an example of the McNamara fallacy.</p><p>Language to watch out for: "You can't measure that, so it's not important."</p>
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".
Generation Ships<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a1e6445c7168d293a6da3f9600f534a2"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/H2f0Wd3zNj0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Many of the most popular apps are about self-improvement.
Emotions are the newest hot commodity, and we can't get enough.