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Solar Orbiter to capture first images of Sun's north, south poles
The spacecraft is set to come closer to the star than any other Sun-facing camera before it.
- Solar Orbiter is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency.
- The mission aims to study the heliosphere, and to uncover information about the Sun's internal structure, magnetic field, and activity cycle.
- Solar Orbiter is set to ascend the ecliptic plane by the end of 2021, when it will begin imaging the Sun.
The Solar Orbiter is set to launch Monday on its mission to study the Sun and photograph its north and south poles for the first time.
The mission is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency that's been nearly two decades in the making. Its primary goal is to help scientists better understand how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, which is the giant bubble-like region of space, formed by the solar wind, that protects our solar system from interstellar radiation. The mission also aims to study the Sun's 11-year activity cycle, magnetic field and internal structure.
Solar Orbiter will orbit the Sun concurrently NASA's Parker Solar Probe, which launched 18 months ago and has flown within 4 million miles of the star. The new spacecraft won't get that close, but it will get a look at the Sun from a unique vantage point: above the ecliptic plane. From there, the orbiter will be able to photograph the star's north and south poles.
"Up until Solar Orbiter, all solar imaging instruments have been within the ecliptic plane or very close to it," Russell Howard, space scientist at the Naval Research Lab in Washington, D.C. and principal investigator for one of Solar Orbiter's ten instruments, told NASA. "Now, we'll be able to look down on the Sun from above."
Scientists aren't quite sure what they'll see.
"There's no rational reasons why the poles shouldn't be different," Mark McCaughrean, senior advisor for science & exploration at ESA, told The Guardian. "Be prepared for surprises."
Studying the Sun from outside the ecliptic plane won't only yield historic images of the star, but it'll also hopefully help scientists better understand and predict solar activity.
"The poles are particularly important for us to be able to model more accurately," said Holly Gilbert, NASA project scientist for the mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "For forecasting space weather events, we need a pretty accurate model of the global magnetic field of the Sun."
To ascend the ecliptic plane by the end of 2021, the Solar Orbiter will fly by Earth and Venus several times, using the two planets' gravity to slingshot itself into an elliptical orbit. The only other spacecraft to travel outside the ecliptic plane was Ulysses, launched in 1990. But Ulysses had no camera. It carried only situ instruments, which measure the environment immediately around the spacecraft.
Solar Orbiter is equipped with 10 instruments: four situ and six remote-sensing tools that can "see" the Sun from afar. (Because these instruments are extremely sensitive, the orbiter was stored in an ultra-clean room before launch; anyone who came near it was required to wear booties and a "bunny suit" to prevent contamination.) The spacecraft aims to travel closer to the star than any other Sun-facing camera. That requires surviving extreme temperatures — both hot and cold.
"Although Solar Orbiter goes quite close to the Sun, it also goes quite far away," Anne Pacros, the payload manager at the European Space Agency's, or ESA's, European Space Research and Technology Centre in the Netherlands, told NASA. "We have to survive both high heat and extreme cold."
To protect its instruments as it comes within 26 million miles of the Sun, Solar Orbiter is equipped with a 324-pound heat shield that can withstand temperatures up to 970 degrees Fahrenheit, which is about one-tenth as hot as the solar surface.
"Five of the remote-sensing instruments look at the Sun through peepholes in that heat shield; one observes the solar wind out to the side," NASA wrote.
Solar Orbiter will work in tandem with the Parker probe.
"As Parker samples solar particles up close, Solar Orbiter will capture imagery from farther away, contextualizing the observations," NASA wrote. "The two spacecraft will also occasionally align to measure the same magnetic field lines or streams of solar wind at different times."
Solar Orbiter is scheduled to turn on its telescopes in November 2021.
"It will capture the imagination like science fiction does and inspire the next generation of scientists and space explorers," Yannis Zouganelis, ESA's deputy project scientist for Solar Orbiter, told The Guardian.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Got $55 million lying around? If so, you might be able to score a spot aboard the International Space Station starting 2024.
- NASA awarded a contract to startup Axiom Space to attach a "habitable commercial module" to the International Space Station.
- The project will also include a research and manufacturing module.
- The move is a major step in NASA's years-long push to privatize.
Image: Axiom Space<p>But first, space-tourist-hopefuls would have to pass through physical and medical exams, and 15 weeks of expert training. After that, the trip sounds pretty comfy:</p><p>"There will be wifi," Suffredini <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/09/style/axiom-space-travel.html" target="_blank">told the New York Times</a> last year. "Everybody will be online. They can make phone calls, sleep, look out the window. [...] The few folks that have gone to orbit as tourists, it wasn't really a luxurious experience, it was kind of like camping. [...] Pretty soon we're going to be flying a butler with every crew."</p>
A render of the ISS tourist experience.
Image: Axiom Space<p>In a blog post, NASA wrote:</p><p>"Developing commercial destinations in low-Earth orbit is one of <a href="https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-opens-international-space-station-to-new-commercial-opportunities-private" target="_blank">five elements</a> of NASA's plan to open the International Space Station to new commercial and marketing opportunities. The other elements of the five-point plan include efforts to make station and crew resources available for commercial use through a new commercial use and pricing policy; enable private astronaut missions to the station; seek out and pursue opportunities to stimulate long-term, sustainable demand for these services; and quantify NASA's long-term demand for activities in low-Earth orbit."</p>
NASA's push to privatize the ISS<p>When a Russian rocket launched the first module of the ISS into space in 1998, NASA expected the space station to operate for about 15 years. But the agency has extended the life of the ISS twice, with funding currently set to expire in 2024. NASA spends between $3 and $4 billion per year operating and shuttling astronauts to and from the station. That's a decent chunk of the agency's $22.6 annual budget. What's more, the "major structural elements" of the ISS are certified only through 2028.</p><p>Meanwhile, NASA has been eyeing other projects, namely: putting humans back on the moon in 2024 and establishing a lunar presence. So, to save and redirect money, the agency has been starting to hand over the aging space station to the private sector, which could use it for commercial research and space tourism.</p><p>But some have questioned the move to privatize the ISS, including NASA's own inspector general, Paul K. Martin.</p><p>"An obvious alternative to privatization is to extend current ISS operations," Martin wrote in a <a href="https://oig.nasa.gov/docs/CT-18-001.pdf" target="_blank">2018 report</a>. "An extension to 2028 or beyond would enable NASA to continue critical on-orbit research into human health risks and to demonstrate the technologies that will be required for future missions to the Moon or Mars."</p>
Image: Axiom Space<p>Martin noted that "research into 2 other human health risks and 17 additional technology gaps is not scheduled to be completed until sometime in 2024," meaning that any slip-ups in the process would mean such research might go uncompleted. He also wrote that it's "questionable" whether the private sector could turn a profit on the ISS without "significant" government funding. The Institute for Defense Analyses, a federally funded research and development center, <a href="https://docs.house.gov/meetings/SY/SY00/20180517/108302/HHRG-115-SY00-Wstate-LalB-20180517.pdf" target="_blank">also found</a> that it "is unlikely that a commercially owned and operated space station will be economically viable by 2025."</p><p>The implication is that, if the ISS is handed over to the private sector, taxpayers could end up indirectly supporting space tourism for the ultra-rich. Whether that's worth any of the research benefits that might come from the ISS post-2024 is anybody's guess.</p><p>As the ISS enters its final years, China <a href="http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-10/17/c_138479514.htm" target="_blank">plans</a> to complete construction of a manned space station in 2022.</p>
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.
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