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MIT launches a fleet of Transformer boats
Clusters of bot boats may offer cities dynamic solutions to rising waters.
- Amsterdam is working with MIT to develop a way to move activity from the streets to the canals.
- A paper announces that the boats can now assemble themselves into various shapes.
- Flexible urban infrastructural systems such as this are likely to grow in importance.
Amsterdam has a problem with its streets — they're packed. They also have a potential solution to this congestion: Their 165 canals. The city's Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS) has teamed up with MIT's Senseable City Lab in a 5-year project to develop intelligent, interlocking vessels that can shift some of that activity from land to sea. These Roboats keep evolving, and now MIT has announced that they're able to shapeshift as they navigate the city's also-crowded and winding canals and to self-assemble into floating structures.
Image source: MIT and AMS Institute
Dynamic urban infrastructures for the future
While the Roboat project is currently focused on Amsterdam's congestion, as coastal waters rise around the world, other cities will require this kind of enhanced flexibility in meeting the needs of their populations. Roads will submerge, waterways will grow, everything will shift around, and developing dynamic infrastructure systems will take on a new urgency as conditions evolve too quickly to be adequately addressed by long-term, fixed, traditional construction projects.
The first major mission for the Roboats will be the "roundAround," a moving "bridge" built of connected autonomous boats circling the canal and ferrying people between the NEMO Science Museum in Amsterdam's city center and the rapidly growing Marineterrein district. Currently, it takes about 10 minutes to walk a kilometer around the waterway to travel between the two locations, but the bridge will shorten that time to less than 2 minutes.
One aspect of the roundAround challenge is getting the autonomous Roboat units to play nice with obstacles and each other as they self-navigate. Another aspect is getting travelers safely onto and off the vessels' ramps. The designers expect to get plenty of feedback from passengers that will inform refinement of the system going forward.
The NEMO Science Museum, with an illustration of the roundAround system.
Image source: MIT/AMS
How Roboats work
The Roboat project involves sets of interconnected Roboat structures, each of which is a "connected-vessel platform," or a CVP. A CVP is comprised of two types of Roboats: A coordinator — the CVP's brain — and a number of workers. Multiple CVPs can be assembled to make larger structures.
Both types of Roboats are outfitted with four propellers, a wireless-capable microcontroller, automated latching mechanisms, and a sensing system with which it can communicate with other vessels.
The coordinators use GPS for navigation, as well as an IMU (inertial measurement unit) with which they can plan the CVPs' trajectory, orientation, and speed. In just a little over 100 milliseconds, a coordinator identifies collision-free regions to work out the shortest safe route. It also estimates its own final position and wirelessly commands its workers into the desired configuration around itself.
The new paper documents the capabilities of low-cost, 3-D-printed, 1/4 scale boats operating in an MIT pool. The boats demonstrated their capabilities by starting in one shape — side-to-side straight lines and squares — and flawlessly separating and reforming into rectangles, "L" shapes, and end-to-end lines. It's a promising start: "A set of boats can come together to form linear shapes as pop-up bridges, if we need to send materials or people from one side of a canal to the other. Or, we can create pop-up wider platforms for flower or food markets," says co-author Daniela Rus.
An illustration of the Roboat concept in action.
Image source: AMS
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What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Researchers dramatically improve the accuracy of a number that connects fundamental forces.
- A team of physicists carried out experiments to determine the precise value of the fine-structure constant.
- This pure number describes the strength of the electromagnetic forces between elementary particles.
- The scientists improved the accuracy of this measurement by 2.5 times.
The process for measuring the fine-structure constant involved a beam of light from a laser that caused an atom to recoil. The red and blue colors indicate the light wave's peaks and troughs, respectively.
Scientists at Washington University are patenting a new electrolyzer designed for frigid Martian water.
- Mars explorers will need more oxygen and hydrogen than they can carry to the Red Planet.
- Martian water may be able to provide these elements, but it is extremely salty water.
- The new method can pull oxygen and hydrogen for breathing and fuel from Martian brine.