from the world's big
New 'swallowable needles' could deliver insulin as a pill
Diabetics have to endure constant injections on a daily basis, but this new device could make staying alive easier.
- Insulin breaks down in the stomach, so diabetics haven't had the option of taking insulin in a pill.
- A new device whose design is inspired by tortoises can be swallowed and inject diabetics with insulin from the inside.
- Though it's still a prototype, the device is an exciting development for delivering insulin and other drugs.
No matter the delivery mechanism, consistently getting a dose of insulin is inconvenient, complicated, and non-negotiable. The unfortunate nature of insulin is that it must enter the bloodstream—if one were to swallow insulin as a pill, for instance, the stomach's enzymes would break the compound down, rendering it useless. So, diabetics must resort to constant injections. However, every new advancement in insulin administration technology has the potential to vastly improve the onerous task of staying alive for a diabetic. This is why a new paper published in Science is so exciting.
A team of researchers has developed a prototype for what amounts to insulin in a pill. But, since insulin can't persist in the stomach, the new device is more accurately described as a swallowable needle. That may sound terrifying, but their research thus far suggests that it's safe, effective, and painless. SOMA—or the self-orienting millimeter-scale applicator—is a tiny device about 1.7 mm tall. When swallowed, it flips and turns around in the stomach, landing in such a way that a biodegradable needle can be deployed into the stomach lining. Because there aren't that many sharp pain receptors in the stomach, this needle causes no pain. And SOMA is small enough that once it's done its job, it easily passes through the rest of the digestive tract.
How does it work?
Like many well-designed products, SOMA took its inspiration from nature; specifically, the leopard tortoise. Tortoises in general have a big problem: Once they flip onto their backs, they have a lot of trouble getting back upright. Stuck upside down, they're liable to be eaten by predators or cooked in the hot sun. Some tortoises, like the leopard tortoise, have evolved a unique shape that makes orienting themselves easier. Their bottom half is fairly flat, but the top of their shells arches up in a sharp, dome-like shape. This is the same design that SOMA uses—it's shaped like a leopard tortoise's shell or an acorn so that it lands on its bottom, where the needle emerges. Furthermore, the top half of the device is made out of a lightweight, biodegradable polyester, while the bottom half is made of heavier stainless steel, encouraging it to flip in the necessary direction.
A leopard tortoise, whose shell shape inspired the design, and a cross section of the device.
Abramson et al., 2019
To test the device, the researchers fed SOMA to pigs, whose physiology resembles that of humans in many respects. In these trials, the researchers made a needle of biodegradable polymer, with a tip made from insulin. Once injected, the insulin performed as expected, encouraging the cellular uptake of glucose. Since these pigs weren't diabetic, though, this wasn't exactly a pleasant experience for them—they became hypoglycemic, where their blood sugar levels dropped too low. Before you worry too much, the researchers did rescue them with a quick dose of dextrose, bringing their blood sugar back to normal.
While insulin was used for testing purposes and is clearly an exciting use case for this technology, it's not the only drug SOMA could be used for. In theory, any drug that can be cast into a needle tip and administered safely and stably through stomach lining could be used.
While its certainly an innovative technology, it's important to remember that this is just a prototype. How it might work in humans, especially diabetics who must consistently take insulin, is unclear. The repeated internal injections could be unsafe. In addition, the size of the device and the thickness of the stomach lining limit the maximum dosage SOMA can deliver, potentially rendering it ineffective for certain medications. But despite these possible limitations, SOMA's promising prototype trials suggest that a drug-delivery system like it could be put into use in the future.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Can an orgasm a day really keep the doctor away?
- Achieving orgasm through masturbation provides a rush of feel-good hormones (such as dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin) and can re-balance our levels of cortisol (a stress-inducing hormone). This helps our immune system function at a higher level.
- The surge in "feel-good" hormones also promotes a more relaxed and calm state of being, making it easier to achieve restful sleep, which is a critical part in maintaining a high-functioning immune system.
- Just as bad habits can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system which can prevent you from becoming sick.
How masturbation affects your brain...<p>Orgasms are a very common human phenomenon. The physical and mental health benefits have been researched frequently as a result, and yet, there is still so much to be learned about how our bodies and brains react to the chemicals and hormones released during and after experiencing this type of sexual release.</p><p>"The amount of speculation versus actual data on both the function and value of orgasm is remarkable" explains Julia Heiman, director of the <a href="https://kinseyinstitute.org/" target="_blank">Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction</a>.</p><p>Masturbation causes a rush of <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/what-is-dopamine" target="_blank">dopamine</a>, which is a chemical that is associated with our ability to feel pleasure. Along with the rush of dopamine that is released during an orgasm, there is also a release of a hormone called <a href="https://www.livescience.com/42198-what-is-oxytocin.html" target="_blank">oxytocin</a>, which is commonly referred to as the "love hormone."<br></p><p>This concoction of chemicals does more than just boost our mood, it also can play a key role in decreasing stress and promoting relaxation. Oxytocin decreases <a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">cortisol</a>, which is a stress hormone that is usually present (in high volumes) during times of anxiety, fear, panic, or distress. </p><p>According to BDSM and fetish researcher <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/dr-gloria-brame-colbert-ga/278388" target="_blank">Dr. Gloria Brame</a>, an orgasm is the biggest non-drug induced blast of dopamine that we can experience. </p><p>By boosting the oxytocin and dopamine levels and subsequently decreasing our cortisol levels, the brain is placed in a more relaxed, euphoric, and calm state. </p>
Masturbation boosts your immune system and raises your white blood cell count.<p>How do those effects on the brain from reaching orgasm translate to boosting our immune system and making our body healthier?</p><p>The increase of oxytocin and dopamine that causes a decrease in cortisol levels can help boost our immune system because cortisol (well-known for being a stress-inducing hormone) actually helps maintain your immune system if released in small doses. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.health24.com/Sex/Great-sex/incredible-health-benefits-to-masturbating-20181030-2" target="_blank">Dr. Jennifer Landa</a>, a hormone-therapy specialist, masturbation can produce the right kind of environment for a strengthened immune system to thrive. </p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316239" target="_blank">A study</a> conducted by the Department of Medical Psychology at the University Clinic of Essen (in Germany) showed similar results. A group of 11 volunteers were asked to participate in a study that would look at the effects of orgasm through masturbation on the white blood cell count and immune system.</p><p>During this experiment, the white blood cell count of each participant was analyzed through measures that were taken 5 minutes before and 45 minutes after reaching a self-induced orgasm. </p><p>The results confirmed that sexual arousal and orgasm increased the number of white blood cells, particularly the natural killer cells that help fight off infections. </p><p>The findings confirm that our immune system is positively affected by sexual arousal and self-induced orgasm and promote even more research into the positive impacts of sexual arousal and orgasm. </p>
Masturbation can ease and prevent pain, which allows you to achieve the restful sleep that helps your immune system stay strong and healthy.<p>The benefits of masturbation have long been debated, but the more research that is done on the topic the more we understand that there are many positive reactions that happen in our bodies and brains when we orgasm.</p><p>Orgasms can help prevent or mitigate pain, which boosts the immune system, preventing cold and flu symptoms. </p><p>According to neurologist and headache specialist Stefan Evers, about one in three patients experience relief from migraine attacks by experiencing sexual activity or orgasm. Evers and his team <a href="https://www.livescience.com/27642-sex-relieves-migraine-pain.html" target="_blank">conducted an experiment</a> with 800 migraine patients and 200 patients who suffered from cluster-headaches to see how their experiences with sexual activity impacted their pain levels. </p><p>The study showed that 60% of migraine sufferers experienced pain relief after participating in sexual activity that resulted in orgasm. Of the cluster-headache sufferers, about 50% said their headaches actually worsened after sexual arousal and orgasm. </p><p>Evers suggested in his findings that the people who did not experience pain relief from migraines of headaches during their sexual activity did not release as large amounts of endorphins as those who did experience pain relief. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.sharecare.com/health/chronic-pain/chronic-pain-affect-immune-system" target="_blank">rheumatologist Dr. Harris McIlwain</a>, people who suffer from chronic pain have immune systems that are simply not functioning at full capacity - therefore, alleviating pain (through orgasm, as an example) can help boost the immune system. </p><p>Orgasms can also promote relaxation and make it easier to fall asleep. Serotonin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine are all hormones that are released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and all three are known for counteracting stress hormones and promoting relaxation, which makes it much easier for you to fall asleep.</p><p>There are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1233384" target="_blank">several studies</a> showing that serotonin and norepinephrine help our body cycle through REM and deep non-REM sleeping cycles. During these sleep cycles, the immune system releases proteins called <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity" target="_blank"><span id="selection-marker-1" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span>cytokines<span id="selection-marker-2" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span></a>, which target infection and inflammation. This is a critical part of our immune response. Cytokines are both produced and released throughout our bodies while we sleep, which proves the importance of a good sleep schedule to a healthy immune system.</p>
Masturbation promotes a high-functioning immune system; a healthy immune system prevents cold and flu.<p>The immune system is a balanced network of cells and organs that work together to defend you against infections and diseases by stopped threats like bacteria and viruses from entering your system. While there are many things we need to do to keep our immune systems functioning at optimal levels, masturbation (or other means of achieving orgasm) has proven to have positive effects on the immune system as a whole.</p><p>Just as bad habits (such as an inconsistent sleep schedule or harmful chemicals in your body) can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system. </p>
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.