from the world's big
Rolls-Royce to launch all-electric plane in 2020
The racing plane is hoped to be the fastest electric plane in existence.
- The electric aircraft industry is just starting to get off the ground, with Siemens breaking the world record for the fastest electric aircraft in 2017.
- With ACCEL (Accelerating the Electrification of Flight), Rolls-Royce intends to beat that record in the spring of 2020.
- While these are existing developments, the field of electric aviation has significant challenges to face before we can expect to see electric long-distance passenger planes.
Rolls-Royce has announced that its zero-emission, one-seater racing plane will take flight in the spring of 2020 with the aim of beating the world record for the fastest electric aircraft. Siemens had set the previous record in 2017 with a speed of 210 miles per hour, but Rolls-Royce's plane — dubbed ACCEL (Accelerating the Electrification of Flight) — is aiming for 300+.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that today's aviation industry contributes about 3.5 percent toward climate change. If no action is taken to mitigate or reduce the aviation industry's emissions the IPCC predicts that this number could rise to anywhere between 5 and 15 percent by 2050.
These facts and the nascent "flight-shaming" movement inspired by Greta Thunberg have pushed aviation companies to develop electric planes, a task that involves far greater technical challenges than developing electric automobiles. However, experts claim that zero-emission planes for passengers are decades away from being realized.
In a statement, Rolls-Royce officials described the importance of ACCEL in pursuit of this goal. "This is not only an important step towards the world-record attempt," said Rob Watson, the director of Rolls-Royce Electric, "but will also help to develop Rolls-Royce's capabilities and ensure that we are at the forefront of developing technology that can play a fundamental role in enabling the transition to a low carbon global economy."
In collaboration with the electric motor manufacturer YASA and the aviation startup Electroflight, Rolls-Royce's ACCEL features the most power-dense battery pack ever assembled for aircraft. Its 6,000 cells provide "energy to fuel 250 homes or fly 200 miles (London to Paris) on a single charge."
Rolls-Royce also points out that ACCEL's powertrain will have an energy efficiency of 90%. In contrast, conventional gasoline engines only use 15 percent of their fuel's energy content, and even Formula 1 race cars only top out at 50% energy efficiency. Electric vehicles are more energy efficient, but ACCEL's powertrain appears to be beat the 80% efficiency that is typical for electric vehicles.
The age of electric flight
Other recent projects show that the electric age of aviation is just beginning to flex its wings. In December 2019, the Canadian commuter airline Harbour Air demonstrated the first electric commercial passenger aircraft. The ePlane, as the project was dubbed, is a seaplane designed for island hopping around the Canadian coastline. Because of the relatively small passenger load and distances involved, this first electric aircraft is well-suited to this purpose, as it can only hold 6 passengers and fly for 30 minutes (with another 30 minutes of reserve power) before requiring recharging.
More projects related to electric aviation were unveiled earlier in the year during the Paris Airshow, including Alice, a project by the Israeli firm Eviation. Alice will be a nine-passenger commercial electric aircraft capable of flying 650 miles at 276 miles per hour and is scheduled to enter service by 2022.
Our biggest stumbling block? Batteries.
While reducing emissions is a nice bonus for these companies, much of this development is driven by simple economics; electricity is far, far cheaper than conventional fuel, and even after investing in all this R&D, air travel will be significantly more cost-effective.
That R&D has delivered results. Much of the technologies involved in electric aircraft and electric vehicles in general has advanced extremely rapidly, with one crucial exception: batteries.
Without a means of storing large amounts of energy more densely and more efficiently, electric aircraft's range will be significantly limited. Currently, 80 percent of aviation CO2 emissions result from flights that travel over 1,500 km (a little less than 1,000 miles), distances that no electric aircraft is capable of covering.
Batteries can be optimized for six different characteristics: their energy density, cost, lifespan, temperature endurance, safety, and power (or the rate at which energy can be released). A smartphone's lithium-ion battery, for instance, should be cheap and endure swings in temperature, but it doesn't need to last too long or release too much energy at once. An airplane's battery system needs to excel on all six of these metrics.
Batteries are tricky, but advances are being made in this industry. With further advancements in electric aviation technology and battery technology, we might get to continue to visit the beautiful places that Earth has to offer without risking their disappearance in the process.
- Carbon neutral flying: How we can get there faster - Big Think ›
- NASA to test its first all-electric plane, the X-57 - Big Think ›
Innovation in manufacturing has crawled since the 1950s. That's about to speed up.
Here's why you might eat greenhouse gases in the future.
- The company's protein powder, "Solein," is similar in form and taste to wheat flour.
- Based on a concept developed by NASA, the product has wide potential as a carbon-neutral source of protein.
- The man-made "meat" industry just got even more interesting.
Seriously sustainable<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTk0MDIzNS9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMjM4NTMzMX0.BCEfYnn6C3z1zUHIS38xOWjXktgamNBi5iyqklSMYK8/img.png?width=980" id="ea524" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="50533380eeb18eb5833b6b6aa3abec38" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Image source: Solar Foods<p>Solar Foods makes Solein by extracting CO₂ from air using <a href="https://www.fastcompany.com/90356326/we-have-the-tech-to-suck-co2-from-the-air-but-can-it-suck-enough-to-make-a-difference" target="_blank">carbon-capture technology</a>, and then combines it with water, nutrients and vitamins, using 100 percent renewable solar energy from partner <a href="https://www.fortum.com" target="_blank">Fortum</a> to promote a natural fermentation process similar to the one that produces yeast and lactic acid bacteria.</p><p>When the company claims its single-celled protein is "free from agricultural limitations," they're not kidding. Being produced indoors means Solar Foods is not dependent on arable land, water (i.e., rain), or favorable weather.</p><p>The company is already working with the European Space Agency to develop foods for off-planet production and consumption. (The idea for Solein actually began at NASA.) They also see potential in bringing protein production to areas whose climate or ground conditions make conventional agriculture impossible.</p><p>And let's not forget all those <a href="https://www.bk.com/menu-item/impossible-whopper" target="_blank">beef-free burgers</a> based on pea and soy proteins currently gaining popularity. The environmental challenge of scaling up the supply of those plants to meet their high demand may provide an opening for the completely renewable Solein — the company could provide companies that produce animal-free "meats," such as <a href="https://www.beyondmeat.com/products/" target="_blank">Beyond Meat</a> and <a href="https://impossiblefoods.com" target="_blank">Impossible Foods</a>, a way to further reduce their environmental impact.</p>
The larger promise<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTk0MDI0MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1NjU4MTg2OX0.7dZZYT5WEV_EupBuLVFwHynarTiz8RYR9aJtC6Ts2C4/img.jpg?width=980" id="3415d" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2e6eebe06d795f844752f9e9d30040d7" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Image source: Solar Foods<p>The impact of the beef — and for that matter, poultry, pork, and fish — industries on our planet is widely recognized as one of the main drivers behind climate change, pollution, habitat loss, and antibiotic-resistant illness. From the cutting down of rainforests for cattle-grazing land, to runoff from factory farming of livestock and plants, to the disruption of the marine food chain, to the overuse of antibiotics in food animals, it's been disastrous.</p><p>The advent of a promising source of protein derived from two of the most renewable things we have, CO₂ and sunlight, <a href="https://solarfoods.fi/environmental-impact/" target="_blank">gets us out of the planet-destruction business</a> at the same time as it offers the promise of a stable, long-term solution to one of the world's most fundamental nutritional needs.</p>
Solar Foods' timetable<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTk0MTEzMS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTU5OTU1OTMwMn0.wnXh56iO_77x2XKV2uIPf78BKw4AJLUpmiyq_JBVGvo/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=172%2C146%2C62%2C135&height=700" id="0297c" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="125c9a98ec818f5c241fa28ef1423e67" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Image source: Lubsan / Shutterstock / Big Think<p>While company plans are always moderated by unforeseen events — including the availability of sufficient funding — Solar Foods plans a global commercial rollout for Solein in 2021 and to be producing two million meals annually, with a revenue of $800 million to $1.2 billion by 2023. By 2050, they hope to be providing sustenance to 9 billion people as part of a $500 billion protein market.</p><p>The project began in 2018, and this year, they anticipate achieving three things: Launching Solein (check), beginning the approval process certifying its safety as a Novel Food in the EU, and publishing plans for a 1,000-metric ton-per-year factory capable of producing 500 million meals annually.</p>
The protein powder Solein. Image source: SOLAR FOODS
Pandemic-inspired housing innovation will collide with techno-acceleration.
Is CRISPR the solution?
Even as the COVID-19 pandemic cripples the economy and kills hundreds of people each day, there is another epidemic that continues to kill tens of thousands of people each year through opioid drug overdose.