from the world's big
9 ways self-driving vehicles could change tourism
Future vacationing could be pretty different.
- A study examines how autonomous vehicles could change the tourism experience
- Removing a human driver adds some new possibilities, like personalized sightseeing tours
- Sex on wheels, anyone?
While experts and manufacturers often assert that self-driving vehicles will come to market by 2020, others are skeptical, as some required elements are far from realization, among them digital maps for cars and cheap enough onboard sensors, computers, and power supplies. (Current hardware is prohibitively expensive for mass production.) Also, more robust networks will be required for all of these connect vehicles. Still, people are already considering the eventual passenger experience — what will we do as we're ferried hither and yon?
In the January 2019 issues of Annals of Tourism Research is an article by the University of Surrey's Scott A.Cohen and Oxfords' Debbie Hopkins. The article's called "Autonomous vehicles and the future of urban tourism," and it examines the impact of future autonomous vehicles on urban tourism. The researchers consider the ways in which sightseeing, recreation, and lodging may change once the technology has matured to the point that vacationers are comfortable enough to let their connected autonomous vehicles, or personal CAVs — and shared, connected autonomous vehicles, or SCAVs — do the driving. Absent the cost of human drivers and with the presumed greater safety — especially with the removal of jet-lagged travelers from behind the wheels of rental cars — Cohen and Hopkins suggest a number of things that could be different.
1. Self-driving taxis
One of the sectors benefiting most from current tourism is taxi drivers. With self-driving vehicles, however, cab drivers could be largely put out of business. On the other hand, self-driving cars are expect to be safer than human-driven cars, so passengers may prefer a less dangerous ride through a new city.
2. Targeted sightseeing
Imagine sightseeing vehicles programmed to satisfy the visitors being shown around town. A pre-trip questionnaire could result in a map optimized for the travelers' interests, reducing the potential for wasted ho-hum vacation moments.
The authors note a couple of potential downsides. First, once the sightseeing vehicle "knows" what interest you, would it also bombard you with onboard targeted ads? Also, the impact of private sightseeing CAVs — as opposed to multi-traveler SCAVs — could lead to greater urban congestion.
3. Extended sightseeing
A car drives beside a Route 66 highgway mural in the downtown district of Albuqurque, New Mexico on October 1, 2018. MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images
Another possible outcome the authors suggest is that sightseeing tours could inexpensively cover larger areas, allowing for more expansively themed trips. Onboard recreations could be provided to keep visitors engaged and amused. Which brings us to…
4. Rolling hotel rooms
With tourists feeling safe in their vehicles, why not catch some sleep en route to the next destination? Ideally, it would look a more comfortable than this, but the thought is there. If people can catch sleep on planes, why not make ground travel more sleepable and appealing?
5. Rolling entertainment
Or you could catch a show. How about a movie, or some sort of VR/AR entertainment? Experiencing a VR environment — related to your real location or not — could be a really fun way to get from place to place.
6. If the SCAV’s rocking, don’t come a-knocking
The report notes the relative lack of interest in studying nyctalopia in that academia "tends to overlook what happens when night falls." Thinking about this, though, autonomous vehicles may see "a variety of practices and emotions gain traction within a particular space-time which generates a special atmosphere associated with particular activities, experiences and possibilities." Night-time travel, like any night-time venue, could provide a mobile setting for "criminal acts, a rendezvous for lovers, nonconventional behaviors, or organizing rebellion."
So, yeah, mobile sex. And maybe revolution.
7. Events and parties
Could larger CVAs contain moving events or parties that allow an organizer to control the atmosphere more absolutely without concerns of its effect on a stationary space? We're thinking easier cleanups, better security, etc. SCAVs could also gather its participants as as the night rolls on.
8. Restaurants and bars
If diners enjoy viewing a skyline from up high while eating, why not the ever-changing nighttime cityscape of well-planned urban tour passing by at ground level? The same could apply to watering holes — why just stare at a bartender when you could be taking in the sights?
9. Less parking to be done
NANJING, CHINA - OCTOBER 31: Abandoned vehicles sit parked inside an industrial park on October 31, 2018 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province of China. Photo by VCG/VCG via Getty Images
One great way to make money for a developer is to open a parking garage in a popular tourist destination. With tourists riding around in SCAVs instead of private vehicles, though, that investment seems considerably less attractive. Of course, tourists will no longer have the difficulty or expense of finding somewhere to park. On-street and roadside parking would also be less necessary, and the authors wonder, "What if parking lots and roadside parking could be transformed into city parks, event spaces and bike lanes?"
Automated tourism of the future, or not? Discuss.
Taxis, sightseeing, and parking changes all seem inevitable and desirable. But it's fair to ask of this study exactly how much of this ambulatory activity is actually desirable, or even that new? After all, people sleep on trains as they travel already, and on planes. Would people prefer sex for some reason in a moving vehicle to a stationary room somewhere? (Mind the potholes.) Much of what's envisioned in the study is already doable with a human driver, and one wonders how much more popular such activities would become absent that one factor — we see very few people engaging in them now. We'll have to wait and see.
Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?
- Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
- It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
- COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
What conditions of the new normal were already appreciated widely?<p>First, we understand that higher education is unique among industries. Some industries are governed by markets. Others are run by governments. Most operate under the influence of both markets and governments. And then there's higher education. Higher education as an "industry" involves public, private, and for-profit universities operating at small, medium, large, and now massive scales. Some higher education industry actors are intense specialists; others are adept generalists. Some are fantastically wealthy; others are tragically poor. Some are embedded in large cities; others are carefully situated near farms and frontiers.</p> <p>These differences demonstrate just some of the complexities that shape higher education. Still, we understand that change in the industry is underway, and we must be active in directing it. Yet because of higher education's unique (and sometimes vexing) operational and structural conditions, many of the lessons from change management and the science of industrial transformation are only applicable in limited or highly modified ways. For evidence of this, one can look at various perspectives, including those that we have offered, on such topics as <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/rethinking-higher-education/lessons-disruption" target="_blank">disruption</a>, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/education/learning/education-technology.html" target="_blank">technology management</a>, and so-called "<a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/media/Excerpt_IHESpecialReport_Growing-Role-of-Mergers-in-Higher-Ed.pdf" target="_blank">mergers and acquisitions</a>" in higher education. In each of these spaces, the "market forces" and "market rules" for higher education are different than they are in business, or even in government. This has always been the case and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p> <p>Second, with so much excitement about innovation in higher education, we sometimes lose sight of the fact that students are—and should remain—the core cause for innovation. Higher education's capacity to absorb new ideas is strong. But the ideas that endure are those designed to benefit students, and therefore society. This is important to remember because not all innovations are designed with students in mind. The recent history of innovation in higher education includes several cautionary tales of what can happen when institutional interests—or worse, <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/apollos-new-owners-seek-fresh-start-beleaguered-company" target="_blank">shareholder</a> interests—are placed above student well-being.</p>
Photo: Getty Images<p>Third, it is abundantly apparent that universities must leverage technology to increase educational quality and access. The rapid shift to delivering an education that complies with social distancing guidelines speaks volumes about the adaptability of higher education institutions, but this transition has also posed unique difficulties for colleges and universities that had been slow to adopt digital education. The last decade has shown that online education, implemented effectively, can meet or even surpass the quality of in-person <a href="https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z" target="_blank">instruction</a>.</p><p>Digital instruction, broadly defined, leverages online capabilities and integrates adaptive learning methodologies, predictive analytics, and innovations in instructional design to enable increased student engagement, personalized learning experiences, and improved learning outcomes. The ability of these technologies to transcend geographic barriers and to shrink the marginal cost of educating additional students makes them essential for delivering education at scale.</p><p>As a bonus, and it is no small thing given that they are the core cause for innovation, students embrace and enjoy digital instruction. It is their preference to learn in a format that leverages technology. This should not be a surprise; it is now how we live in all facets of life.</p><p>Still, we have only barely begun to conceive of the impact digital education will have. For example, emerging virtual and augmented reality technologies that facilitate interactive, hands-on learning will transform the way that learners acquire and apply new knowledge. Technology-enabled learning cannot replace the traditional college experience or ensure the survival of any specific college, but it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale. This has always been the case, and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p>
What conditions of the new normal were emerging suspicions?<p>Our collective thinking about the role of institutional or university-to-university collaboration and networking has benefitted from a new clarity in light of COVID-19. We now recognize more than ever that colleges and universities must work together to ensure that the American higher education system is resilient and sufficiently robust to meet the needs of students and their families.</p> <p>In recent weeks, various commentators have suggested that higher education will face a wave of institutional <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/scott-galloway-predicts-colleges-will-close-due-to-pandemic-2020-5" target="_blank">closures</a> and consolidations and that large institutions with significant online instruction capacity will become dominant.</p> <p>While ASU is the largest public university in the United States by enrollment and among the most well-equipped in online education, we strongly oppose "let them fail" mindsets. The strength of American higher education relies on its institutional diversity, and on the ability of colleges and universities to meet the needs of their local communities and educate local students. The needs of learners are highly individualized, demanding a wide range of options to accommodate the aspirations and learning styles of every kind of student. Education will become less relevant and meaningful to students, and less responsive to local needs, if institutions of higher learning are allowed to fail. </p> <p>Preventing this outcome demands that colleges and universities work together to establish greater capacity for remote, distributed education. This will help institutions with fewer resources adapt to our new normal and continue to fulfill their mission of serving students, their families, and their communities. Many had suspected that collaboration and networking were preferable over letting vulnerable colleges fail. COVID-19's new normal seems to be confirming this.</p>
President Barack Obama delivers the commencement address during the Arizona State University graduation ceremony at Sun Devil Stadium May 13, 2009 in Tempe, Arizona. Over 65,000 people attended the graduation.
Photo by Joshua Lott/Getty Images<p>A second condition of the new normal that many had suspected to be true in recent years is the limited role that any one university or type of university can play as an exemplar to universities more broadly. For decades, the evolution of higher education has been shaped by the widespread imitation of a small number of elite universities. Most public research universities could benefit from replicating Berkeley or Michigan. Most small private colleges did well by replicating Williams or Swarthmore. And all universities paid close attention to Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, and Yale. It is not an exaggeration to say that the logic of replication has guided the evolution of higher education for centuries, both in the US and abroad.</p><p>Only recently have we been able to move beyond replication to new strategies of change, and COVID-19 has confirmed the legitimacy of doing so. For example, cases such as <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/10/harvard-moves-classes-online-advises-students-stay-home-after-spring-break-response-covid-19/" target="_blank">Harvard's</a> eviction of students over the course of less than one week or <a href="https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Mayor-New-Haven-asks-for-coronavirus-help-Yale-15162606.php" target="_blank">Yale's apparent reluctance</a> to work with the city of New Haven, highlight that even higher education's legacy gold standards have limits and weaknesses. We are hopeful that the new normal will include a more active and earnest recognition that we need many types of universities. We think the new normal invites us to rethink the very nature of "gold standards" for higher education.</p>
A graduate student protests MIT's rejection of some evacuation exemption requests.
Photo: Maddie Meyer/Getty Images<p>Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we had started to suspect and now understand that America's colleges and universities are among the many institutions of democracy and civil society that are, by their very design, incapable of being sufficiently responsive to the full spectrum of modern challenges and opportunities they face. Far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted. And without new designs, we can expect postsecondary success for these same students to be as elusive in the new normal, as it was in the <a href="http://pellinstitute.org/indicators/reports_2019.shtml" target="_blank">old normal</a>. This is not just because some universities fail to sufficiently recognize and engage the promise of diversity, this is because few universities have been designed from the outset to effectively serve the unique needs of lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color.</p>
Where can the new normal take us?<p>As colleges and universities face the difficult realities of adapting to COVID-19, they also face an opportunity to rethink their operations and designs in order to respond to social needs with greater agility, adopt technology that enables education to be delivered at scale, and collaborate with each other in order to maintain the dynamism and resilience of the American higher education system.</p> <p>COVID-19 raises questions about the relevance, the quality, and the accessibility of higher education—and these are the same challenges higher education has been grappling with for years. </p> <p>ASU has been able to rapidly adapt to the present circumstances because we have spent nearly two decades not just anticipating but <em>driving</em> innovation in higher education. We have adopted a <a href="https://www.asu.edu/about/charter-mission-and-values" target="_blank">charter</a> that formalizes our definition of success in terms of "who we include and how they succeed" rather than "<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/10/17/forget-varsity-blues-madness-lets-talk-about-students-who-cant-afford-college/" target="_blank">who we exclude</a>." We adopted an entrepreneurial <a href="https://president.asu.edu/read/higher-logic" target="_blank">operating model</a> that moves at the speed of technological and social change. We have launched initiatives such as <a href="https://www.instride.com/how-it-works/" target="_blank">InStride</a>, a platform for delivering continuing education to learners already in the workforce. We developed our own robust technological capabilities in ASU <a href="https://edplus.asu.edu/" target="_blank">EdPlus</a>, a hub for research and development in digital learning that, even before the current crisis, allowed us to serve more than 45,000 fully online students. We have also created partnerships with other forward-thinking institutions in order to mutually strengthen our capabilities for educational accessibility and quality; this includes our role in co-founding the <a href="https://theuia.org/" target="_blank">University Innovation Alliance</a>, a consortium of 11 public research universities that share data and resources to serve students at scale. </p> <p>For ASU, and universities like ASU, the "new normal" of a post-COVID world looks surprisingly like the world we already knew was necessary. Our record breaking summer 2020 <a href="https://asunow.asu.edu/20200519-sun-devil-life-summer-enrollment-sets-asu-record" target="_blank">enrollment</a> speaks to this. What COVID demonstrates is that we were already headed in the right direction and necessitates that we continue forward with new intensity and, we hope, with more partners. In fact, rather than "new normal" we might just say, it's "go time." </p>
Russian astrophysicists propose the Casimir Effect causes the universe's expansion to accelerate.
- Astrophysicists from Russia propose a theory that says dark energy doesn't exist.
- Instead, the scientists think the Casimir Effect creates repulsion.
- This effect causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate.
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Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.
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