from the world's big
Why Chinese educators are using 'dystopian' brainwave-detecting headbands on students
China is testing electronic monitoring of students' attention levels.
- Schools are experimenting with students wearing EEG headbands as a means to monitor how well they're paying attention.
- The headbands are a product of a U.S company, BrainCo.
- The hope is that such monitoring will help students learn and teachers teach more effectively.
It would be great if school were always fascinating and compelling, especially to young minds dutifully at their desks day after day, month after month. Alas, it's not so. What would childhood schools days have been without windows through which we could gaze at the sky, at cars, dog-walkers, and really anything at all other than the teacher and the blackboard, or today's equivalent, smartboards?
Educators in China are having none of that, apparently. They are experimenting, it's being reported by SupChina, with "dystopian" headbands that allow them to monitor how well each of their students is paying attention.
The headbands the Chinese are trying out actually come from America, from Boston startup BrainCo. The trackers are a product called the FocusEDU, and were developed in association with Harvard Center of Brain Science. It's based on an algorithm from NASA.
The Chinese are checking out the headbands in Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province. Another school in Jinhua, in the same province, has previously given them a shot. BrainCo says that in January, it completed a 21-day trial involving 10,000 Chinese students. (The company is also working with schools in Mexico, Spain, and Brazil.) A distribution deal in China has already been arranged for 20,000 headsets.
The company says the January trials resulted in better grades, though there's no independent confirmation of that, and no scholarly studies have yet been done to confirm the claim. The neuroscience community would no doubt require such evidence before getting onboard with the headbands.
The company envisions sharing their database of brain activity with research entities down the road. The more customers they get for their product, the larger the database, of course.
How the headbands can help
In a headbanded classroom, a teacher can ostensibly track an individual student's attention level via an attention-level report that shows what's going on in their brain. This can identify students who need extra help remaining engaged. BrainCo envisions these reports also being used by the students themselves as a way of assessing their own attentiveness during lessons.
The system also provides metrics on the entire class' aggregated attention level to the instructor, who can then fine-tune the curriculum to more effectively resonate with learners.
Finally, school administrators can use "big-data analysis" to learn more about how and when their student populations learn best, and modify schedules accordingly. They can also derive teaching best practices from the data to strengthen the connection teachers make with their students.
What the headbands detect
As with the adult version of Focus depicted here, FocusEDU headbands use electroencephalography (EEG) technology to monitor each wearer's brain.
In terms of downside, some students reportedly find the headband uncomfortably restrictive, and the devices' presence adds an additional layer of competitiveness and pressure to the classroom experience — teachers in the tests announce the top three most attentive students at the end of each class.
The kids are too young to be concerned about personal privacy, but it seems likely their parents and privacy advocates would have some interesting thoughts.
Join The Daily Show comedian Jordan Klepper and elite improviser Bob Kulhan live at 1 pm ET on Tuesday, July 14!
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."