from the world's big
The planet that we are searching for is a little bit smaller and closer than we originally thought.
- Years ago, California Institute of Technology professor Konstantin Batygin was inspired to embark on a journey of discovering what lurked beyond Neptune. What he and his collaborator discovered was a strange field of debris.
- This field of debris exhibited a clustering of orbits, and something was keeping these orbits confined. The only plausible source would be the gravitational pull of an extra planet—Planet Nine.
- While Planet Nine hasn't been found directly, the pieces of the puzzle are coming together. And Batygin is confident we'll return to a nine-planet solar system within the next decade.
Maybe you've been wondering if you're seeing one persistent squirrel or a rotating cast of characters.
Watching the wildlife outside your window can boost your mental well-being, and it's something lots of people have been doing a lot more of lately.
- Astronaut Garrett Reisman took in countless indescribably beautiful views while he lived in space. But most shocking, he says, was observing the thinness of Earth's atmosphere.
- You can compare the thickness of the atmosphere to the diameter of Earth to the skin on an apple, or the shell of an egg. It's incredibly thin and shows just how seemingly fragile our planet is.
- But to put this into perspective, whereas the atmosphere reaches a height of 300,000 feet from Earth's surface, the deepest part of the ocean only reaches 35,000 feet, ten times thinner than Earth's atmosphere. Everything we experience on Earth, from sea to sky, exists on just a tiny slice of precious surface coating.
The impact of giving up is exactly the same as the impact of denying climate change.
- Disheartened, many are convinced there's no fighting climate change at this point.
- There's no single on/off switch, however, so we can still lessen its effects.
- It's up to us to make the crisis our leaders' priority.
Ow. Stop.<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RoQRkmRjz38" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> <p> (Adam "Climate Adam" Levy is a University of Oxford doctor in atmospheric physics) </p><p> Climate experts have drawn various red lines in the sand that we dare not cross lest we trigger some terrible effect. By and large, their predictions have been, if anything, too optimistic. Climate change is not coming — it's here, even if the scientific community thought, or maybe hoped, it might not land its first punches so soon. </p><p> <em>"Climate change has already killed hundreds or thousands — or more — of people, through malaria, through dengue, through a hundred other avenues that we're only now starting to be able to quantify." — Colin Carlson, Georgetown University, speaking to </em><a href="https://www.livescience.com/12-years-to-stop-climate-change.html" target="_blank"><em>LiveScience</em></a><em>.</em> </p><p> The most universally accepted red line was drawn by the U.N.'s 2018 <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/2018/10/08/summary-for-policymakers-of-ipcc-special-report-on-global-warming-of-1-5c-approved-by-governments/" target="_blank">IPCC report</a>. It prescribed limiting the Earth's increase in temperature to 1.5° C (2.6° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100, a feat that would require cutting carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions by 45% before 2030, just a decade from now. Yet here we are, two years later and emissions are still going up. 2018 set a new record high which was promptly exceeded in 2019. Stanford University's Rob Jackson tells the <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2019/12/03/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-will-hit-yet-another-record-high-this-year-experts-project/" target="_blank"><em>Washington Post</em></a>, "We're blowing through our carbon budget the way an addict blows through cash." </p><p> Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, author of the <a href="https://www.npr.org/2019/02/07/691997301/rep-alexandria-ocasio-cortez-releases-green-new-deal-outline" target="_blank">Green New Deal Initiative</a>, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3-QvoIfpxc&feature=youtu.be" target="_blank">recalls</a> that for many of her constituents, the U.N. report created a sense of urgency that mystifyingly appeared to escape, and continues to escape, Washington: "Millennials and Gen Z and all these folks that come after us are looking up, and we're like, 'The world is going to end in 12 years if we don't address climate change, and your biggest issue is how are we gonna pay for it?'" </p><p> The truth is, however, that missing the 2030 deadline doesn't mean we all suddenly die and society instantly crumbles. Not necessarily, anyway. That 1.5° mark is definitely the threshold for terrible consequences, but it's just the nearest nightmare, and there are plenty more following close behind it, each of which makes things worse. </p><p> Can we completely avoid climate change's irreversible effects? Too late. Can we avoid its worst-case scenarios? Absolutely yes. </p>
9 ticking clocks<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYyODU2MS9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwNzA4NTI1OH0.qwBAXB64NJSdzceyBJYCmNMdzR9Axh3xHqFsrbRprSc/img.gif?width=980" id="c1fae" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a12a8c49af1d1eac86322b67a26e6335" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Image source: Stockholm Resilience<p> Experts cite nine such deadlines looming, as shown in this gif from <a href="https://www.stockholmresilience.org" target="_blank"><em>Stockholm Resilience</em></a>.</p><p>There's work to be done, and two types of people stand in the way of continuing to try and make things better, or at least less worse:</p> <ol> <li>Climate-change deniers — mostly people with a vested financial interest in fossil fuels, joined by people who just don't want to face the confirmed scientific truth.</li> <li>People who are ready to give up trying.</li> </ol> <p><em>"Some people — I'm hazarding industry and those focused on maintaining a growth-focused economy — would argue that we don't want to sacrifice things in the short term," </em><a href="https://www.livescience.com/12-years-to-stop-climate-change.html" target="_blank"><em>says</em></a><em> Lini Wollenberg of the University of Vermont, "and that society will figure out the technology to deal with it later."</em></p><p>Wishful thinking that technology can come up with some fix later on is childish. <em>Maybe</em> it'll happen, but meanwhile it bestows permission on humanity to do nothing now, even as the effects of our procrastination are already being felt. What's worse, the dreamed-of solutions would have only larger and increasingly more difficult problems to remedy if the solutions materialize at all.</p><p>Scientists agree that we can best put the brakes on climate change by doing two things:</p> <ul> <li>Immediately cutting back carbon emissions.</li> <li>Developing a workable system for pulling excess carbon from the atmosphere using currently available technology. The most realistic approach appears to be the strategic planting of more trees.</li> </ul> <p>Make no mistake, though, this is a long-term fight, and rather than continuing to punch ourselves in the face believing there's no way to make it stop, we simply cannot lose heart. This is not some abstract, feel-good affirmation, either. We need to recommit ourselves to doing everything we can to support efforts to turn this around.</p><p>Of course we can help by considering our own carbon footprints, but the big steps are in the hands of governmental leaders, like it or not — individuals' contributions to emissions add up, but they pale in comparison to the amount of institutional, industrial carbon being set aloft. As the Earth burns, it becomes ever-more clear that only regulatory mechanisms have the muscle to force positive action. It will require a commitment on our part to ensure that power to make the necessary large-scale changes is in the hands of people who get it. Each of us has to prioritize electing and supporting leaders who get it. Vote, march, reduce. All of it can help. And it's not too late. </p>
The 385-million-year-old fossils show that trees evolved modern features millions of years earlier than previously estimated.
- The world's oldest forest fossils were located in an abandoned quarry near Cairo, New York.
- Research of site specimens suggests that the forebearers to modern plants evolved much earlier than expected.
- The findings help scientists better understand how trees advanced life's evolutionary trajectory to land during a critical period.
And into the forest science goes<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjIxMDkxMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzMjY5NjM5MX0.rHTatOWXvjOVElbPRGy3b9AXZ3YmIowuIUppuJx8DHU/img.jpg?width=980" id="cd33f" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e89128bb031a7ecbcaf2e50dd3b67e7c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Researchers explore an Archaeopteris root system at the Cairo fossil forest site.
A glimpse of the oldest forests takes root<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjIxMDkxNC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MzEzMDQ0MH0.olZsDm2PQbijpdOEVV-bKt_Sg-6lbKUDjKngPl7nzBk/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C0&height=700" id="49541" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c3f5542f5a40dd9eb79e17db63799c7a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
The fossilized remains of the world's oldest fossil forest in the abandoned sandstone quarry.