from the world's big
Whales songs indicate where they’ve been — where they were born
Humpbacks swap songs at remote group of islands in the South Pacific.
- A whale's song reflects its geographical and social history.
- A new study identifies for the first time a major migratory crossroads where whales meet.
- The discovery sheds light on the mystery of how whale songs evolve across the Pacific.
To the northeast of New Zealand in the South Pacific lie six islands referred to as the Kermadec Islands. The group has a dark history with whales since sperm whales, humpbacks, and southern right whales where nearly hunted to extinction there in the past. That's changed, though, and what would be the largest marine preserve in the world is under consideration for these islands: the 620-square-kilometer Kermadec Sanctuary.
Humpback whale songs have long been an area of fascination and study. What are they for, and what do they mean? We know that there are songs associated with different breeding grounds, but these songs tend to grow in length and complexity over the course of a whale's lifetime, becoming more and more difficult to parse.
Researchers suspect that at least some of the embellishments come from other whales encountered along the way, providing clues about a whale's social history and where it comes from. However, the mechanism that would allow sharing across such widely spaced migratory routes to summertime feeding grounds in Antartica has been a puzzle.
The authors of a report published this month in Royal Society Open Science have just confirmed the scientists' hunch by filling in this blank. It turns out the Kermadecs — and in particular Rangitahua/Raoul Island — are a major crossroads at which the many migratory paths traveled by Oceania whales converge. This is where whales meet and exchange tunes, a few of which the researchers have now unraveled.
Where the twain meet
It's been known that whale songs tend to cross in waves eastward across the South Pacific, from Australia to French Polynesia, over the course of about three years. "While convergence and transmission have been shown within a whale population during migration and on their wintering grounds, song exchange and convergence on a shared migratory route remained elusive," recalls Dr. Ellen Garland of the University of St. Andrews.
There's evidence of song sharing within groups, but not so much across them. The convergence of different routes near the Kermadecs changes that. Says St. Andrews' Dr. Luke Rendell, "Song themes from multiple wintering grounds matched songs recorded at the Kermadecs, including a hybrid of two songs, suggesting that multiple humpback whale populations from across the South Pacific are traveling past these islands and song learning may be occurring."
Image Source: NASA
Songs of the sea
During September and October 2015 the researchers from the School of Biology at the University of St. Andrews in the U.K. recorded the songs of whales passing by the Kermadecs. The also captured songs at whale feeding and breeding locations east and west of Australia, and across the western and central parts of the South Pacific.
Their careful transcriptions of recordings from 52 whales overall resulted in the identification of three basic types of songs. As in human music, songs are comprised of groups of themes, which are groups of phrases, which themselves are groups of notes.
- Most common in the central Pacific — near the Cook Islands and French Polynesia — was Song Type. 1.
- Song Type 2 was heard most frequently in the western ocean, near Tonga, West Caledonia, and Niue.
- Coming exclusively from just east of Australia was Song Type 3.
Most of the songs recorded were Type 2 songs, from the western Pacific. Almost none came from east Australia, and only a few from the central ocean. Two of these, labeled in the study as Songs 1a and 1b, were quite similar.
By comparing similarities and difference in themes and phrases researchers were able to tell where each whale had been born, confirming these identifications with photographs and genetic markers.
There are likely other migratory junctions at which new phrases and themes may be exchanged, but the Kermadecs are the first such place that's been found.
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.