New therapy turns cancer cells into fat to stop it from spreading
Researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have hijacked cancer's cellular plasticity to turn the disease against itself.
- In 2018, an estimated 627,000 women died from breast cancer worldwide.
- Researchers recently discovered a drug combination that turned cancer cells into fat cells, preventing its proliferation.
- The drug therapy could be used to halt metastasis, the leading cause of death from cancer.
It may be a family member, a friend, a coworker, or even yourself, but chances are breast cancer will invade your life at some point. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 242,476 new cases of female breast cancer were reported in 2015 alone. The disease took the lives of 41,523 women that same year. This makes breast cancer the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among American women.
Worldwide, cancers represent the second leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease. Yet despite these disheartening numbers, we are making progress in developing effective treatments against this deadly affliction.
Scientists may have given us another tool to further this progress. They've developed a new drug therapy that prevents malignant cancer growth. How? By turning cancer cells into fat.
The good kind of fat
Low magnification micrograph of a metastatic tumor [left side] in the ovary. This tumor metastasized from a tumor in the woman's breast. Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons
Metastasis is the leading cause of death from cancer, occurring when cancer cells separate from the original tumor to proliferate elsewhere. These new cancer cells travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Since these bodily systems are thoroughly connected, cancer can spread to a variety of locations. Breast cancer, for example, "tends to spread to the bones, liver, lungs, chest wall, and brain."
Cancer cell plasticity — an ability that allows cancer cells to shift physiological characteristics dramatically — fosters metastasis and is responsible for cancer's resistance to treatments. To combat its resistance, researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland decided to turn cancer's cellular plasticity against itself. They used Rosiglitazone, an anti-diabetic drug, along with MEK inhibitors in mice implanted with breast cancer cells. Their aim was to alter the cancer cells.
The drug combination hijacked the breast cancer cells during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process by which the cells undergo biochemical changes. EMT plays a role in many bodily functions, such as tissue repair. In unaltered cancer cells, EMT allows them to migrate away from the original tumor while maintaining their oncogenic properties.
But in cancer cells assaulted by the new drug therapy, EMT changes them into adipocytes, or fat cells. Like normal fat cells, these former breast cancer cells were both functional and post-mitotic, meaning they could no longer divide and proliferate.
While the therapy did not alter the original tumor, it did prevent new cancer cells from dividing and spreading elsewhere in the body. This repressed metastasis in the researcher's preclinical trials.
The researchers published their findings on January 14 in the journal Cancer Cell.
"In future, this innovative therapeutic approach could be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy to suppress both primary tumor growth and the formation of deadly metastases," senior study author Gerhard Christofori told Medical News Today.
Since the research used FDA-approved drugs to study the treatment's effects, the study notes, "a clinical translation may be possible."
Will we win the battle against cancer?
Members of Lebanon's Ladies of Harley hold placards as take part in an event organised by Pink Steps Lebanon to raise awareness about breast cancer on October 28, 2018. Photo credit: MAHMOUD ZAYYAT / AFP / Getty Images
This article opened with some fearful figures about cancer and its effect on people worldwide. But there's reason to hope.
While the total number of new cancer cases and deaths continues to increase, the rates of cancer diagnoses and deaths decline each year — as absolute figures don't account for rises in life expectancy, population growth, or aging populations. We've made great strides in understanding the disease and its various genetic and environmental origins. And events like Breast Cancer Awareness Month continue to educate the populace about the preventative measures available to them.
Thanks to scientists like those at the University of Basel in Switzerland, we may have more reasons to be hopeful very soon.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
BASE particle physicists have discovered a very precise way to examine antimatter.
Thank your lucky stars you’re alive. It’s truly a miracle of nature. This has nothing to do with spirituality or religion and everything to do with science. Life itself may not be the miracle. Although we haven’t found it elsewhere yet, our galaxy alone is so replete with Earth-like planets that, mathematically speaking, one of them must hold life, even if it’s just the microbial variety. Intelligent life may be another matter.
Just before I turned 60, I discovered that sharing my story by drawing could be an effective way to both alleviate my symptoms and combat that stigma.
I've lived much of my life with anxiety and depression, including the negative feelings – shame and self-doubt – that seduced me into believing the stigma around mental illness: that people knew I wasn't good enough; that they would avoid me because I was different or unstable; and that I had to find a way to make them like me.
A joint study by two England universities explores the link between sex and cognitive function with some surprising differences in male and female outcomes in old age.
- A joint study by the universities of Coventry and Oxford in England has linked sexual activity with higher cognitive abilities in older age.
- The results of this study suggest there are significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing/word recall in men. In women, however, there was a significant association between sexual activity in word recall alone - number sequencing was not impacted.
- The differences in testosterone (the male sex hormone) and oxytocin (a predominantly female hormone) may factor into why the male cognitive level changes much more during sexual activity in older age.
Mathematicians studied 100 billion tweets to help computer algorithms better understand our colloquial digital communication.