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How Tasmanian devils are evolving to fight back against extinction
Devil facial tumor disease, or DFTD, has cut the Tasmanian devil population by 90 percent. Now, some devils have evolved to resist the virulent cancer.
- Devil facial tumor disease, or DFTD, is a transmissible cancer that Tasmanian devils spread through bites.
- The cancer is highly infectious and lethal, and the Tasmanian devil population has dropped by 90 percent since it was first discovered.
- In the short time that we've known about the disease, however, the devils seem to be evolving new defenses that are helping some of them fight back and survive.
In 1996, Dutch photographer Christo Baars was looking through the images he had captured from a recent trip to northeastern Tasmania. His subject was the famously scrappy Tasmanian devil. But the devil in his pictures looked to be in bad shape, and not just because of the scars devils often accumulate when fighting one another. They had bulbous growths covering their faces.
Baars showed his photographs to a wildlife officer in Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife. This marked the beginning of humanity's awareness of the strange disease that had begun to inflict the Tasmanian devils, one that would ultimately cut their population down by 90 percent. Years later in 2007, it was predicted that the entire species would be extinct within 35 years.
This was bad news for Tasmania as a whole. Devils are what's known as a keystone species, a species with outsized importance on the local ecosystem. Like many islands, Tasmania possesses exceptionally unique flora and fauna, and its ecosystem is particularly sensitive. So, it was crucial to preserve the devil population, but the unique nature of the disease made this a challenging task.
Devil facial tumor disease, or DFTD, is an exceedingly common in the devil population, but it's actually an incredibly rare form of cancer. Specifically, DFTD is a transmissible cancer. Almost all cancers arise from within as a result of a cellular mutation, but DFTD comes from without, a kind of parasitic cancer.
Transmissible cancers are known to occur in only a handful of other animals, notably dogs, Syrian hamsters, and soft-shell clams. In devils, the cancer is spread through bites, a particularly efficient means of transmission for this species. What's more, when researchers examined cancerous cells from different devils, the cancers were genetically identical, suggesting that the cancer started with one individual and then spread from devil to devil. In a sense, it's less accurate to describe Tasmanian devils as each having their own cancer; instead, all infected devils have the same cancer.
Another lethal aspect of DFTD has to do with the small size of the Tasmanian ecosystem. Without much room for their population to grow and become diverse, Tasmanian devils are all quite similar genetically. As such, when the first devil to be infected with DFTD spread his or her cancer cells to other devils, their immune systems failed to recognize the foreign cells as foreign — the DFTD cells weren't being attacked and suppressed as would have happened if, say, the devils had been infected by a virus.
A glimmer of hope
A Tasmanian devil is seen in a trap after being captured in the wild to check for signs of DFTD. Photo credit: Adam Pretty / Getty Images
Since DFTD is a cancer, its nearly impossible to treat in wild animals — without opposable thumbs to mark off their calendars, Tasmanian devils have had trouble making their chemotherapy appointments. Some researchers have been working hard at crafting a cancer vaccine that, when injected, could prompt the devils' immune systems to attack the debilitating tumors.
However, it seems like the devils are bouncing back without little help from humans at all. Dr. Rodrigo Hamede from the University of Tasmania has been monitoring DFTD and Tasmanian devils for years now. "Natural selection is trying to fix the problem on its own by favoring those who can survive the tumor, so we're more hopeful these days than ever before," said Hamede to the BBC. "We have witnessed how these tumors shape the ecology of devils and how they have been evolving with their hosts in real time."
Remarkably, in just 16 years — eight generations for Tasmanian devils — the devils have evolved to resist DFTD. Usually, DFTD kills devils within a year or slightly longer by making it difficult for them to eat or through metastases. However, Hamede's team has found some devils that have survived for two years with DFTD, enabling them to reproduce more frequently and give birth to young resistant to the disease. Even better, the team has recorded 23 cases of tumor regression, implying that some devils may be better equipped to fight against and recover from DFTD.
Taking these and other factors into account, Hamede's team conducted a forecast of the likely outcomes for the Tasmanian devil population based on the available data. Over the next 100 years, the researchers estimated that there was a 21 percent chance the Tasmanian devil would go extinct, a 22 percent chance the devils would coexist with DFTD, and a 57 percent chance that the debilitating cancer would fade out of existence.While this is all extremely encouraging, the Tasmanian devils aren't out of the woods yet. To ensure the survival of the species, a small population of cancer-free devils have been brought to Maria Island, just three miles off the coast of Tasmania, which has no native population of Tasmanian devils. The same has been done in a facility in Hobart, the capital of the Tasmanian island state. No matter whether the devils or their cancer wins out the fight, with any luck, the species will survive.
- Tasmanian Devils: The Face of a Cancer Crisis - Big Think ›
- Cancer cells hibernate to survive chemotherapy, finds study - Big Think ›
How would the ability to genetically customize children change society? Sci-fi author Eugene Clark explores the future on our horizon in Volume I of the "Genetic Pressure" series.
- A new sci-fi book series called "Genetic Pressure" explores the scientific and moral implications of a world with a burgeoning designer baby industry.
- It's currently illegal to implant genetically edited human embryos in most nations, but designer babies may someday become widespread.
- While gene-editing technology could help humans eliminate genetic diseases, some in the scientific community fear it may also usher in a new era of eugenics.
Tribalism and discrimination<p>One question the "Genetic Pressure" series explores: What would tribalism and discrimination look like in a world with designer babies? As designer babies grow up, they could be noticeably different from other people, potentially being smarter, more attractive and healthier. This could breed resentment between the groups—as it does in the series.</p><p>"[Designer babies] slowly find that 'everyone else,' and even their own parents, becomes less and less tolerable," author Eugene Clark told Big Think. "Meanwhile, everyone else slowly feels threatened by the designer babies."</p><p>For example, one character in the series who was born a designer baby faces discrimination and harassment from "normal people"—they call her "soulless" and say she was "made in a factory," a "consumer product." </p><p>Would such divisions emerge in the real world? The answer may depend on who's able to afford designer baby services. If it's only the ultra-wealthy, then it's easy to imagine how being a designer baby could be seen by society as a kind of hyper-privilege, which designer babies would have to reckon with. </p><p>Even if people from all socioeconomic backgrounds can someday afford designer babies, people born designer babies may struggle with tough existential questions: Can they ever take full credit for things they achieve, or were they born with an unfair advantage? To what extent should they spend their lives helping the less fortunate? </p>
Sexuality dilemmas<p>Sexuality presents another set of thorny questions. If a designer baby industry someday allows people to optimize humans for attractiveness, designer babies could grow up to find themselves surrounded by ultra-attractive people. That may not sound like a big problem.</p><p>But consider that, if designer babies someday become the standard way to have children, there'd necessarily be a years-long gap in which only some people are having designer babies. Meanwhile, the rest of society would be having children the old-fashioned way. So, in terms of attractiveness, society could see increasingly apparent disparities in physical appearances between the two groups. "Normal people" could begin to seem increasingly ugly.</p><p>But ultra-attractive people who were born designer babies could face problems, too. One could be the loss of body image. </p><p>When designer babies grow up in the "Genetic Pressure" series, men look like all the other men, and women look like all the other women. This homogeneity of physical appearance occurs because parents of designer babies start following trends, all choosing similar traits for their children: tall, athletic build, olive skin, etc. </p><p>Sure, facial traits remain relatively unique, but everyone's more or less equally attractive. And this causes strange changes to sexual preferences.</p><p>"In a society of sexual equals, they start looking for other differentiators," he said, noting that violet-colored eyes become a rare trait that genetically engineered humans find especially attractive in the series.</p><p>But what about sexual relationships between genetically engineered humans and "normal" people? In the "Genetic Pressure" series, many "normal" people want to have kids with (or at least have sex with) genetically engineered humans. But a minority of engineered humans oppose breeding with "normal" people, and this leads to an ideology that considers engineered humans to be racially supreme. </p>
Regulating designer babies<p>On a policy level, there are many open questions about how governments might legislate a world with designer babies. But it's not totally new territory, considering the West's dark history of eugenics experiments.</p><p>In the 20th century, the U.S. conducted multiple eugenics programs, including immigration restrictions based on genetic inferiority and forced sterilizations. In 1927, for example, the Supreme Court ruled that forcibly sterilizing the mentally handicapped didn't violate the Constitution. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendall Holmes wrote, "… three generations of imbeciles are enough." </p><p>After the Holocaust, eugenics programs became increasingly taboo and regulated in the U.S. (though some states continued forced sterilizations <a href="https://www.uvm.edu/~lkaelber/eugenics/" target="_blank">into the 1970s</a>). In recent years, some policymakers and scientists have expressed concerns about how gene-editing technologies could reanimate the eugenics nightmares of the 20th century. </p><p>Currently, the U.S. doesn't explicitly ban human germline genetic editing on the federal level, but a combination of laws effectively render it <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jlb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jlb/lsaa006/5841599#204481018" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">illegal to implant a genetically modified embryo</a>. Part of the reason is that scientists still aren't sure of the unintended consequences of new gene-editing technologies. </p><p>But there are also concerns that these technologies could usher in a new era of eugenics. After all, the function of a designer baby industry, like the one in the "Genetic Pressure" series, wouldn't necessarily be limited to eliminating genetic diseases; it could also work to increase the occurrence of "desirable" traits. </p><p>If the industry did that, it'd effectively signal that the <em>opposites of those traits are undesirable. </em>As the International Bioethics Committee <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jlb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jlb/lsaa006/5841599#204481018" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">wrote</a>, this would "jeopardize the inherent and therefore equal dignity of all human beings and renew eugenics, disguised as the fulfillment of the wish for a better, improved life."</p><p><em>"Genetic Pressure Volume I: Baby Steps"</em><em> by Eugene Clark is <a href="http://bigth.ink/38VhJn3" target="_blank">available now.</a></em></p>
Meteorologists propose a stunning new explanation for the mysterious events in the Bermuda Triangle.
One of life's great mysteries, the Bermuda Triangle might have finally found an explanation. This strange region, that lies in the North Atlantic Ocean between Bermuda, Miami and San Juan, Puerto Rico, has been the presumed cause of dozens and dozens of mind-boggling disappearances of ships and planes.
A unique exoplanet without clouds or haze was found by astrophysicists from Harvard and Smithsonian.
- Astronomers from Harvard and Smithsonian find a very rare "hot Jupiter" exoplanet without clouds or haze.
- Such planets were formed differently from others and offer unique research opportunities.
- Only one other such exoplanet was found previously.
Munazza Alam – a graduate student at the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian.
Credit: Jackie Faherty
Jupiter's Colorful Cloud Bands Studied by Spacecraft<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="8a72dfe5b407b584cf867852c36211dc"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/GzUzCesfVuw?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Scientists discover burrows of giant predator worms that lived on the seafloor 20 million years ago.
- Scientists in Taiwan find the lair of giant predator worms that inhabited the seafloor 20 million years ago.
- The worm is possibly related to the modern bobbit worm (Eunice aphroditois).
- The creatures can reach several meters in length and famously ambush their pray.
A three-dimensional model of the feeding behavior of Bobbit worms and the proposed formation of Pennichnus formosae.
Credit: Scientific Reports
Beware the Bobbit Worm!<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1f9918e77851242c91382369581d3aac"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/_As1pHhyDHY?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The idea behind the law was simple: make it more difficult for online sex traffickers to find victims.