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Dead – yes, dead – tardigrade found beneath Antarctica
A completely unexpected discovery beneath the ice.
- Scientists find remains of a tardigrade and crustaceans in a deep, frozen Antarctic lake.
- The creatures' origin is unknown, and further study is ongoing.
- Biology speaks up about Antarctica's history.
So it turns out our favorite real-world superheroes, tardigrades, aren't completely indestructible. But even in death, they continue to amaze. Scientists boring a hole one kilometer beneath the ice deep within a buried Antarctic lake recently got a bit of a shock. They came across the remains of once-living creatures, some ancient crustaceans, and — you guessed it — a water bear. How all of the creatures got there remains unclear.
The discovery was "completely unexpected," micropaleontologist David Harwood tells Nature. The drilling was done under the auspices of the SALSA (Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access) project. Glaciologist Slawek Tulaczyk, who's not involved with SALSA, says, "This is really cool. It's definitely surprising."
Welcome to Subglacial Lake Mercer
The scientists were drilling in Subglacial Lake Mercer, a frozen body of water undisturbed for millennia. SALSA's is the first direct sampling of its contents. Prior to the drilling, it had only been examined with ice-penetrating radar and some other indirect detection devices.
SALSA drilled down a kilometer into the ice above Lake Mercer using a hot-water drill . At its maximum width, the hole was just 60 centimeters across.
On December 30, the team retrieved a temperature sensor from the frozen lake and noticed some gray-brown mud stuck to the bottom of it. Looking at the mud under a microscope, Harwood saw the glassy remains of photosynthetic diatoms, which he expected, but also a shrimp-like crustacean shell with its legs still intact. And then another, even better-preserved one.
To double-check, the team cleaned off their sensor and sent it down for more mud. This time, more crustacean shells and some other things that looked a bit like worms appeared under the microscope. On January 8, at a National Science Foundation base 900 kilometers away, animal ecologist named Byron Adams had a look. He confirmed the crustaceans, found the tardigrade, and identified the worm-like organisms as being thread-like plants or fungi. He'd seen all three types of creatures previously in the glacier-free Dry Valleys of Antarctica, as well as in the Transantarctic Mountains.
Where the organisms were found, but why?
The animals could have come from other places, such as the ocean. Between five and ten thousand years ago, the Antarctic ice sheet became thinner for a while, and this could have allowed seawater to make its way beneath floating ice, carrying organisms along with it that eventually became trapped beneath the ice sheet when it returned to its normal thickness.
The water sampled from Lake Mercer has enough oxygen to sustain life, and is packed with bacteria, over 10,000 cells per millimeter. Harwood wonders if larger animals could have survived feeding on them, though the majority of biologists don't think it's likely to have been a substantial enough food source.
Adams suspects the creatures actually lived in the Transantarctic Mountains and were then transported after dying down to Lake Mercer. He says they seem too recent to have been neighbors of the millions-of-years-old diatoms. "What was sort of stunning about the stuff from Lake Mercer," Adams tells Nature, "is it's not super, super-old. They've not been dead that long." The eight-legged tardigrade from Lake Mercer resembles those found in damp soil, reinforcing Adam's conclusion.
Back to the lab
The next steps for these intriguing remains is an attempt at determine their age using radiocarbon dating. In addition, researchers will try and sequence DNA scraps from them to learn if they're of marine or freshwater species. Finally, scientists will perform chemical analyses of carbon the remains contain to see if a determination can be made as to whether the animals spent their days in sunlight or in the dark, far beneath the Antarctic.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Many of the most popular apps are about self-improvement.
Emotions are the newest hot commodity, and we can't get enough.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
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