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'Spacekime theory' could speed up research and heal the rift in physics
Can spacekime help us make headway on some of the most pernicious inconsistencies in physics?
- Our linear model of time may be holding back scientific progress.
- Spacekime theory can help us better understand the development of diseases, financial and environmental events, and even the human brain.
- This theory helps us better utilize big data, develop AI, and can even solve inconsistencies in physics.
We take for granted the western concept of linear time. In ancient Greece, time was cyclical and if the Big Bounce theory is true, they were right. In Buddhism, there is only the eternal now. Both the past and the future are illusions. Meanwhile, the Amondawa people of the Amazon, a group that first made contact with the outside world in 1986, have no abstract concept of time. While we think we know time pretty well, some scientists believe our linear model hobbles scientific progress. We're missing whole dimensions of time, in this view, and our limited perception could be the last obstacle to a sweeping theory of everything.
Theoretical physicist Itzhak Bars of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, is the most famous scientist with such a hypothesis, known as two-time physics. Here, time is 2D, visualized as a curved plane interwoven into the fabric of the "normal" dimensions—up-down, left-right, and backward-forward. While the hypothesis is over a decade old, Bars isn't the only scientist with such an idea. But what's different with spacekime theory is that it uses a data analytics approach, rather than a physics one. And while it posits that there are at least two dimensions of time, it allows for up to five.
In the spacekime model, space is 5D. Besides the ones we normally encounter, the extra dimensions are so infinitesimally small, we never notice them. This relates to the Kaluza–Klein theory developed in the early 20th century, which stated that there might be an extra, microscopic dimension of space. In this view, space would be curved like the surface of Earth. And like Earth, those who travel the entire distance would, eventually, loop back to their place of origin.
Kaluza-Klein theory unified electromagnetism and gravity, but wasn't accepted at the time, although it did help in the search for quantum gravity. The concept of additional dimensions was revived in the 1990s with Paul Wesson's Space-Time-Matter Consortium. Today, proponents of superstring theory say there may be as many as 10 different dimensions, including nine of space and one of time.
The Spacekime model
Spacekime theory was developed by two data scientists. Dr. Ivo Dinov is the University of Michigan's SOCR Director, as well as a professor of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, and Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics. SOCR stands for: Statistics Online Computational Resource designs. Dr. Dinov is an expert in "mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, computational processing, scientific visualization of large datasets (Big Data) and predictive health analytics." His research has focused on mathematical modeling, statistical inference, and biomedical computing.
His colleague, Dr. Milen Velchev Velev, is an associate professor at the Prof. Dr. A. Zlatarov University in Bulgaria. He studies relativistic mechanics in multiple time dimensions, and his interests include "applied mathematics, special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, cosmology, philosophy of science, the nature of space and time, chaos theory, mathematical economics, and micro-and-macroeconomics."
Drs. Dinov and Velev began developing spacekime theory around four or five years ago, while working with big data in the healthcare field. "We started looking at data that intrinsically has a temporal dimension to it," Dr. Dinov told me during a video chat. "It's called longitudinal or time varying data, longitudinal time variance—it has many, many names. This is data that varies with time. In biomedicine, this is the de facto, standard data. All big health data is characterized by space, time, phenotypes, genotypes, clinical assessments, and so forth."
A better way to manage big data
"We started asking big questions," Dinov said. "Why are our models not really fitting too well? Why do we need so many observations? And then, we started playing around with time. We started digging and experimenting with various things. And then we realized two important facts.
"Number one, if we use what's called color-coded representations of the complex plane, we can define spacekime, or higher dimensional spacetime, in such a way that it agrees with the common observations that we make in (the longitudinal time series in) ordinary spacetime. That agreement was very important to us, because it basically says, yes, the higher dimensional theory does not contradict our common observations.
"The second realization was that, since this extra dimension of time is imperceptible, we needed to approximate, model, or estimate, one of the unobservable time characteristics, which we call the kime phase. After about a year, we discovered that there is a mathematically elegant tool called the Laplace Transform that allows us to analytically represent time series data as kime-surfaces. Turns out, the spacekime mathematical manifold is a natural, higher dimensional extension of classical Minkowski, four-dimensional spacetime."
Our understanding of the world is becoming more complex. As a result, we have big data to contend with. How do we find new ways to analyze, interpret and visual such data? Dinov believes spacekime theory can help in some pretty impressive ways. "The result of this multidimensional manifold generalization is that you can make scientific inferences using smaller data samples. This requires that you have a good model or prior knowledge about the phase distribution," he said. "For instance, we can use spacekime process representation to better understand the development or pathogenesis to model the distributions of certain diseases.
"Suppose we are evaluating fMRIs of Alzheimer's disease subjects. Assume we know the kime phase distribution for another cohort of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's disease. The ALS kime-phase distribution could be used for evaluating the Alzheimer's patients," and many other neurodegenerative populations. Dinov also thinks spacekime analytics could help improve political polling, increase our understanding of complex financial and environmental events, and even the innerworkings of the human brain, all without having to take the huge samples required today to make accurate models or predictions. Spacekime theory even offers opportunities to design novel AI analytical techniques. But it goes beyond that.
The problem of time
Spacekime theory can help us make headway on some of the most pernicious inconsistencies in physics, such as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the seemingly irreconcilable rift between quantum physics and general relativity, what's known as "the problem of time."
Dinov wrote that the "approach relies on extending the notions of time, events, particles, and wave functions to complex-time (kime), complex-events (kevents), data, and inference-functions." Basically, working with two points of time allows you to make inferences on a radius of points associated with a certain event. With Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, according to this model, since time is a plane, a certain particle would be in one position or phase, time-wise, in terms of velocity, and another phase, in terms of position.
This idea of hidden dimensions of time is a little like Plato's allegory of the cave or how an X-ray signifies what's underneath, but doesn't convey a 3D image. From a data science perspective, it all comes down to utility. Dinov believes that if we can calculate the true phase dispersion of complex phenomena, we can better understand and control them.
Drs. Dinov and Velev's book on spacekime theory comes out this August. It's called "Data Science: Time Complexity, Inferential Uncertainty, and Spacekime Analytics".
- Hints of the 4th dimension have been detected by physicists - Big ... ›
- There are 2 dimensions of time, theoretical physicist states - Big Think ›
Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to life recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
New data have set the particle physics community abuzz.
- The first question ever asked in Western philosophy, "What's the world made of?" continues to inspire high energy physicists.
- New experimental results probing the magnetic properties of the muon, a heavier cousin of the electron, seem to indicate that new particles of nature may exist, potentially shedding light on the mystery of dark matter.
- The results are a celebration of the human spirit and our insatiable curiosity to understand the world and our place in it.
If brute force doesn't work, then look into the peculiarities of nothingness. This may sound like a Zen koan, but it's actually the strategy that particle physicists are using to find physics beyond the Standard Model, the current registry of all known particles and their interactions. Instead of the usual colliding experiments that smash particles against one another, exciting new results indicate that new vistas into exotic kinds of matter may be glimpsed by carefully measuring the properties of the quantum vacuum. There's a lot to unpack here, so let's go piecemeal.
It is fitting that the first question asked in Western philosophy concerned the material composition of the world. Writing around 350 BCE, Aristotle credited Thales of Miletus (circa 600 BCE) with the honor of being the first Western philosopher when he asked the question, "What is the world made of?" What modern high energy physicists do, albeit with very different methodology and equipment, is to follow along the same philosophical tradition of trying to answer this question, assuming that there are indivisible bricks of matter called elementary particles.
Deficits in the Standard Model
Jumping thousands of years of spectacular discoveries, we now have a very neat understanding of the material composition of the world at the subatomic level: a total of 12 particles and the Higgs boson. The 12 particles of matter are divided into two groups, six leptons and six quarks. The six quarks comprise all particles that interact via the strong nuclear force, like protons and neutrons. The leptons include the familiar electron and its two heavier cousins, the muon and the tau. The muon is the star of the new experiments.
For all its glory, the Standard Model described above is incomplete. The goal of fundamental physics is to answer the most questions with the least number of assumptions. As it stands, the values of the masses of all particles are parameters that we measure in the laboratory, related to how strongly they interact with the Higgs. We don't know why some interact much stronger than others (and, as a consequence, have larger masses), why there is a prevalence of matter over antimatter, or why the universe seems to be dominated by dark matter — a kind of matter we know nothing about, apart from the fact that it's not part of the recipe included in the Standard Model. We know dark matter has mass since its gravitational effects are felt in familiar matter, the matter that makes up galaxies and stars. But we don't know what it is.
Whatever happens, new science will be learned.
Physicists had hoped that the powerful Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland would shed light on the nature of dark matter, but nothing has come up there or in many direct searches, where detectors were mounted to collect dark matter that presumably would rain down from the skies and hit particles of ordinary matter.
Could muons fill in the gaps?
Enter the muons. The hope that these particles can help solve the shortcomings of the Standard Model has two parts to it. The first is that every particle, like a muon, that has an electric charge can be pictured simplistically as a spinning sphere. Spinning spheres and disks of charge create a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the spin. Picture the muon as a tiny spinning top. If it's rotating counterclockwise, its magnetic field would point vertically up. (Grab a glass of water with your right hand and turn it counterclockwise. Your thumb will be pointing up, the direction of the magnetic field.) The spinning muons will be placed into a doughnut-shaped tunnel and forced to go around and around. The tunnel will have its own magnetic field that will interact with the tiny magnetic field of the muons. As the muons circle the doughnut, they will wobble about, just like spinning-tops wobble on the ground due to their interaction with Earth's gravity. The amount of wobbling depends on the magnetic properties of the muon which, in turn, depend on what's going on with the muon in space.
Credit: Fabrice Coffrini / Getty Images
This is where the second idea comes in, the quantum vacuum. In physics, there is no empty space. The so-called vacuum is actually a bubbling soup of particles that appear and disappear in fractions of a second. Everything fluctuates, as encapsulated in Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Energy fluctuates too, what we call zero-point energy. Since energy and mass are interconvertible (E=mc2, remember?), these tiny fluctuations of energy can be momentarily converted into particles that pop out and back into the busy nothingness of the quantum vacuum. Every particle of matter is cloaked with these particles emerging from vacuum fluctuations. Thus, a muon is not only a muon, but a muon dressed with these extra fleeting bits of stuff. That being the case, these extra particles affect a muon's magnetic field, and thus, its wobbling properties.
About 20 years ago, physicists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory detected anomalies in the muon's magnetic properties, larger than what theory predicted. This would mean that the quantum vacuum produces particles not accounted for by the Standard Model: new physics! Fast forward to 2017, and the experiment, at four times higher sensitivity, was repeated at the Fermi National Laboratory, where yours truly was a postdoctoral fellow a while back. The first results of the Muon g-2 experiment were unveiled on 7-April-2021 and not only confirmed the existence of a magnetic moment anomaly but greatly amplified it.
To most people, the official results, published recently, don't seem so exciting: a "tension between theory and experiment of 4.2 standard deviations." The gold standard for a new discovery in particle physics is a 5-sigma variation, or one part in 3.5 million. (That is, running the experiment 3.5 million times and only observing the anomaly once.) However, that's enough for plenty of excitement in the particle physics community, given the remarkable precision of the experimental measurements.
A time for excitement?
Now, results must be reanalyzed very carefully to make sure that (1) there are no hidden experimental errors; and (2) the theoretical calculations are not off. There will be a frenzy of calculations and papers in the coming months, all trying to make sense of the results, both on the experimental and theoretical fronts. And this is exactly how it should be. Science is a community-based effort, and the work of many compete with and complete each other.
Whatever happens, new science will be learned, even if less exciting than new particles. Or maybe, new particles have been there all along, blipping in and out of existence from the quantum vacuum, waiting to be pulled out of this busy nothingness by our tenacious efforts to find out what the world is made of.
- Benjamin Franklin wrote essays on a whole range of subjects, but one of his finest was on how to be a nice, likable person.
- Franklin lists a whole series of common errors people make while in the company of others, like over-talking or storytelling.
- His simple recipe for being good company is to be genuinely interested in others and to accept them for who they are.
Think of the nicest person you know. The person who would fit into any group configuration, who no one can dislike, or who makes a room warmer and happier just by being there.
What makes them this way? Why are they so amiable, likeable, or good-natured? What is it, you think, that makes a person good company?
There are really only two things that make someone likable.
This is the kind of advice that comes from one of history's most famously good-natured thinkers: Benjamin Franklin. His essay "On Conversation" is full of practical, surprisingly modern tips about how to be a nice person.
Franklin begins by arguing that there are really only two things that make someone likable. First, they have to be genuinely interested in what others say. Second, they have to be willing "to overlook or excuse Foibles." In other words, being good company means listening to people and ignoring their faults. Being witty, well-read, intelligent, or incredibly handsome can all make a good impression, but they're nothing without these two simple rules.
The sort of person nobody likes
From here, Franklin goes on to give a list of the common errors people tend to make while in company. These are the things people do that makes us dislike them. We might even find, with a sinking feeling in our stomach, that we do some of these ourselves.
1) Talking too much and becoming a "chaos of noise and nonsense." These people invariably talk about themselves, but even if "they speak beautifully," it's still ultimately more a soliloquy than a real conversation. Franklin mentions how funny it can be to see these kinds of people come together. They "neither hear nor care what the other says; but both talk on at any rate, and never fail to part highly disgusted with each other."
2) Asking too many questions. Interrogators are those people who have an "impertinent Inquisitiveness… of ten thousand questions," and it can feel like you're caught between a psychoanalyst and a lawyer. In itself, this might not be a bad thing, but Franklin notes it's usually just from a sense of nosiness and gossip. The questions are only designed to "discover secrets…and expose the mistakes of others."
3) Storytelling. You know those people who always have a scripted story they tell at every single gathering? Utterly painful. They'll either be entirely oblivious to how little others care for their story, or they'll be aware and carry on regardless. Franklin notes, "Old Folks are most subject to this Error," which we might think is perhaps harsh, or comically honest, depending on our age.
4) Debating. Some people are always itching for a fight or debate. The "Wrangling and Disputing" types inevitably make everyone else feel like they need to watch what they say. If you give even the lightest or most modest opinion on something, "you throw them into Rage and Passion." For them, the conversation is a boxing fight, and words are punches to be thrown.
5) Misjudging. Ribbing or mocking someone should be a careful business. We must never mock "Misfortunes, Defects, or Deformities of any kind", and should always be 100% sure we won't upset anyone. If there's any doubt about how a "joke" will be taken, don't say it. Offense is easily taken and hard to forget.
On practical philosophy
Franklin's essay is a trove of great advice, and this article only touches on the major themes. It really is worth your time to read it in its entirety. As you do, it's hard not to smile along or to think, "Yes! I've been in that situation." Though the world has changed dramatically in the 300 years since Franklin's essay, much is exactly the same. Basic etiquette doesn't change.
If there's only one thing to take away from Franklin's essay, it comes at the end, where he revises his simple recipe for being nice:
"Be ever ready to hear what others say… and do not censure others, nor expose their Failings, but kindly excuse or hide them"
So, all it takes to be good company is to listen and accept someone for who they are.
Philosophy doesn't always have to be about huge questions of truth, beauty, morality, art, or meaning. Sometimes it can teach us simply how to not be a jerk.
A recent study analyzed the skulls of early Homo species to learn more about the evolution of primate brains.