Scientists create 10-minute test that can detect cancer anywhere in the body
The quick test would be a breakthrough in cancer treatment.
- Australian researchers find 3D nanostructures that are unique to cancer cells.
- These markers can be identified using technology that may be available on cell phones.
- Human clinical trials are next for the team.
Australian researchers claim in a new study that they developed a 10-minute test that's capable of finding cancer cells at any location in the body. If further testing achieves the same results, this accomplishment could be a real breakthrough in fighting cancer.
The potential for quick diagnoses could help detect and treat cancer early, potentially helping the outcomes for millions of people. The test works by looking for a unique DNA nanostructure that seems to be common to all types cancers. What's especially remarkable is that the variability of cancers makes finding one simple signature shared by them all very complicated.
The study carried out by researchers Dr Abu Sina, Dr Laura Carrascosa and Professor Matt Trau from the University of Queensland, looked for common markers in cancers that would be different from healthy cells.
"This unique nano-scaled DNA signature appeared in every type of breast cancer we examined, and in other forms of cancer including prostate, colorectal and lymphoma," said Dr. Sina. "The levels and patterns of tiny molecules called methyl groups that decorate DNA are altered dramatically by cancer – these methyl groups are key for cells to control which genes are turned on and off."
Professor Matt Trau, Dr Abu Sina and Dr Laura Carrascosa.
Credit: University of Queensland.
Dr. Carrascosa explained that the team made a tool that can look at what changes happen over the entire genome level of cells. In particular, what they noticed is that methyl groups in a healthy cell can be found across the whole genome while in cancer cells the genomes "are essentially barren except for intense clusters of methyl groups at very specific locations."
The team found that when clusters of methyl groups are placed in a solution, the cancer DNA fragments folded into unusual three-dimensional nanostructures. What's more - these could be made to separate if stuck to gold and other solid surfaces. This breakthrough led to the development of a test using gold nanoparticles that can change color to show if the cancer DNA is present.
Dr. Tau from the team said "this led to the creation of inexpensive and portable detection devices that could eventually be used as a diagnostic tool, possibly with a mobile phone."
This tech has proven to be 90% accurate when used on a group that included 200 human cancer samples and normal DNA. The diseases detected included breast, prostate, bowel and lymphoma cancers.
The researchers are urging caution, saying they don't know yet if what they created is "the holy grail for all cancer diagnostics." Other scientists have also expressed some skepticism, pointing to the fact this type of testing can produce false positives, leading to more expensive testing. The test is also unable to show how severe the extent of the disease is.
Despite the reservations and competitors, like a recent initiative from Johns Hopkins University to create a quick $500 blood test, the Australian researchers are optimistic that their find of "an incredibly simple universal marker of cancer" can result in "an accessible and inexpensive technology that doesn't require complicated lab-based equipment like DNA sequencing," Professor Trau shared.
Such technology could be particularly useful in rural or underdeveloped areas, where additional medical resources are not available. It can also be useful in monitoring for re-appearances of cancers.
Clinical trials on humans are next for the team.
Check out their new study in Nature Communications magazine.
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A strange weakness in the Earth's protective magnetic field is growing and possibly splitting, shows data.
- "The South Atlantic Anomaly" in the Earth's magnetic field is growing and possibly splitting, shows data.
- The information was gathered by the ESA's Swarm Constellation mission satellites.
- The changes may indicate the coming reversal of the North and South Poles.
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Researchers detect a large lake and several ponds deep under the ice of the Martian South Pole.
- Italian scientists release findings of a large underground lake and three ponds below the South Pole of Mars.
- The lake might contain water, with salt preventing them from freezing.
- The presence of water may indicate the existence of microbial and other life forms on the planet.
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"Nothing but naked people: fat ones, thin ones, old, young…"
"The Yellow Sands", 1888, John Reinhard Weguelin; source: Wikimedia Commons<h3>Naked revolution</h3><p>Yet long before anyone knew about beach fashion, naturism was trendy. Bathing naked in the sea was going on in England as early as 1840. However, during the reign of Queen Victoria, this pleasure was outlawed. But it popped up again among the conservative Germans. In 1898, the first Naturist Club was founded in Essen and in 1900 the Wandering Birds group (<em>Wandervögel</em>) was scouring the country for uninhabited places and naked sunbathing. In the same year, Heinrich Pudor wrote <em>The C</em><em>ult of </em><em>the </em><em>Nud</em><em>e</em>, winning the hearts of contemporary supporters of naturism.</p><p>In the 1920s, on the back of this, members of the Movement for Natural Healing (<em>Naturheilbewegung</em>) organized naked sunbathing for the improvement of health. Persuaded by Pudor's theory of the healing properties of the sun and wind, which could be absorbed through the skin, they launched the naked revolution.</p><p>Pudor's book became the naturists' manifesto and soon after, not far from Hamburg, the Free Body Culture (<em>Freikörperkultur</em>, or FKK) movement was founded. This spread through other German centres and brought together thousands of people. The FKK still operates under the same name today.</p><p>The cult of the naked body even wrote itself into the ideology of fascist Germany, which advocated a pure, Aryan race. But in 1933, Hermann Göring issued an order that defined nudity as "the greatest threat to the German soul" and, with that, criminalized naturist organizations. But this wasn't the end of the movement. The naturists went underground, continuing their activities under the guise of improving physical fitness.</p><p>In 1936, the idea was even floated of having a naturist display to open the Berlin Olympic Games. It was quickly dropped. Despite this, in 1939 the naturists managed to organize their own Games in the Swiss village of Thielle.</p>