Could ‘Planet 9’ actually be an ancient black hole?
A new paper suggests a primordial black hole may be making things weird at the edge of our solar system.
- Though a Planet 9 has been hypothesized, we can't seem to find it, at least not yet.
- The strange orbits of distant bodies and weird gravitational anomalies beg for an explanation.
- Scientists propose a hunt for telltale gamma rays from a primordial black hole.
One of the more tantalizing mysteries of modern astronomy is figuring out just what it is that's distorting the orbits of objects out at the edge of our solar system. The most popular candidate is a large, unseen mystery planet, dubbed either "Planet 9" or "Planet X."
However, no such body's been observed.
Last June, new models from the University of Cambridge and American University of Beirut, in Lebanon, showed how there may be no need for a Planet 9 after all — a swarm of small, icy objects may be what's producing the weird orbits. A new study, however, says, nope, it is something big out there, and the reason we can't see it is that it's an ancient black hole.
Image source: pixelparticle/Shutterstock/Big Think
The team behind the new paper, Jakub Scholtz of Durham University in the U.K., and James Unwin of the University of Illinois at Chicago, are concerned not just with these odd orbits, but also with a set of gravitational anomalies observed by Poland's Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). Both phenomena, the authors say, "can be simultaneously explained by a new population of astrophysical bodies with mass several times that of Earth."
Such a body might be a primordial black hole (PBH), created within the first second after the Big Bang, that's somehow been captured by our solar system. The authors consider this idea every bit as likely as a Planet 9, which would require a re-thinking of planetary formation given that it would be a free-floating member of a solar system. "A solution with an ordinary planet and a solution with an exotic compact object like a primordial black hole are very similar," says Unwin.
Intriguingly, the scientists say, the proposed PBH may ultimately be more observable than Planet 9 has proven to be, if indirectly.
How a black hole could be detected
Fermi Space Telescope
Image source: NASA
Scholtz and Unwin say confirmation of a PBH could be attained with the capture of gamma-ray signals from its microhalo composed of dark matter. While we currently have no way to directly observe dark matter, it's believed that the fatal interactions between dark matter and normal matter at the edge of the PBH would produce gamma "annihilation signals" that devices such as the Fermi Space Telescope or the Chandra X-ray Observatory could detect.
This microhalo might extend hundreds of thousands of miles from the black hole's center. "We actually expect [annihilation signals] to happen at quite a significant rate," says Unwin, "so these things have the potential to just be glowing sources in the sky."
Cutting it close
Image source: gurzart / Shutterstock
One obvious question a black hole inside our solar system would prompt is whether or not the system's planets would eventually be drawn into it. If it's located in the same area as the proposed Planet 9, it would be over 56 billion miles away from Earth. That's less than a single light year, 6 trillion miles, pretty close in astronomical terms. Should we be worried?
"For normal black holes," explains Scholtz, "you need to have at least a solar mass because it is created out of a star. These primordial black holes can be much lighter; for example, an Earth mass, or in fact, even lighter." In layman's terms, we can relax — this one would be tiny.
Adding to the conversation
The paper by Scholtz and Unwin is still under peer review and hasn't yet been published in its final form. It's a new idea, and possibly incorrect, but still worthy of consideration. "We're not saying that it can't be a planet," Unwin tells UIC Today. "We're saying it need not be a planet, and the important point is that this extends the experimental search needed to find this object we believe may be in the outer solar system."
How ‘The Goblin’ may unravel the mystery of Planet Nine
Researchers have just discovered the remains of a hybrid human.
90,000 years ago, a young girl lived in a cave in the Altai mountains in southern Siberia. Her life was short; she died in her early teens, but she stands at a unique point in human evolution. She is the first known hybrid of two different kinds of ancient humans: the Neanderthals and the Denisovans.
These thought leaders, founders, and entrepreneurs are propelling the kind of future we want to be a part of.
- The tech industry may be dominated by men in terms of numbers, but there are lots of brilliant women in leadership positions that are changing the landscape.
- The women on this list are founders of companies dedicated to teaching girls to code, innovators in the fields of AI, VR, and machine learning, leading tech writers and podcasters, and CEOs of companies like YouTube and Project Include.
- This list is by no means all-encompassing. There are many more influential women in tech that you should seek out and follow.
Most said they want to act on their desire someday. But do open relationships actually work?
- The study involved 822 Americans who were in monogamous relationships at the time.
- Participants answered questions about their personalities, sexual fantasies, and intentions to act on those fantasies.
- Research suggests practicing consent, comfort, and communication makes open relationships more likely to succeed.
Consensual non-monogamy fantasies<p>For the new study, published in <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-020-01788-7" target="_blank">Archives of Sexual Behavior</a>, researchers asked 822 people in monogamous relationships to:</p><ul><li>Describe their favorite sexual fantasy, defined as "mental images you have while you are awake that you find to be sexually arousing or erotic."</li><li>Select which themes apply to that fantasy, such as having sex with multiple people at the same time, experimenting with taboos, or engaging in a sexually open relationship.</li><li>Answer whether they intended to carry out these fantasies, and discuss them with their partner.</li><li>Complete assessments on relationship satisfaction, erotophilia and personality, as measured by the Big Five Personality inventory.</li></ul><p>The results showed that 32.6 percent of participants said being part of a sexually open relationship was "part of their favorite sexual fantasy of all time." More surprising is that, of that one-third, 80 percent said they want to act on this fantasy in the future.</p>
Pretzelpaws via Wikipedia Commons<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The present research confirms the important distinction between sexual fantasy and sexual desire in that not everyone wanted to act on their favorite sexual fantasy of all time," study author Justin J. Lehmiller told <a href="https://www.psypost.org/2020/09/one-third-of-people-in-monogamous-relationships-fantasize-about-being-in-some-type-of-open-relationship-study-suggests-58102" target="_blank">PsyPost</a>. "This suggests that fantasies may serve different functions for different people."</p><p>Even though most participants said they want to act out their fantasy in the future, far fewer reported acting out sexual fantasies in the past. Other findings included:</p><ul><li>Men were more likely to fantasize about CNMRs.</li><li>So were people who scored high in <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erotophilia#:~:text=Erotophilia%20is%20a%20personality%20trait,ranging%20from%20erotophobia%20to%20erotophilia." target="_blank">erotophilia</a> and sociosexual orientation.</li><li>The psychological predictors of fantasizing about CNMRs differed from predictors about infidelity fantasies.</li></ul>
Do open relationships work?<p>A <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00224499.2019.1669133" target="_blank">2019 study</a> from psychologists at the University of Rochester suggests it <em>is </em>possible<em>, </em>but especially when both partners practice a trio of behaviors: consent, communication, and comfort — or, the Triple-C Model.<br></p>But the study also suggests not all forms of open relationships are equally viable. For example, people in one-sided CNMRs — where one partner stays monogamous, the other seeks outside sexual relationships — were nearly three times more dissatisfied in their relationships than the monogamous group <em>and </em>the consensual non-monogamous group.
The results of this study showed depressive symptoms being highest in adolescence, declining in early adulthood and then climbing back up again into one's early 30s.