Mount Vesuvius eruption boiled people's blood, made skulls explode

The eruption quickly killed those caught in its intense wake.

Mount Vesuvius skull explosion and blood vaporizing
Wikimedia Commons/PLOS One Journal
  • The eruption occurred in the year 79 A.D.
  • New research suggests the people of the town of Herculaneum were killed nearly instantly by intense heat
  • According to recent findings, the victims' blood boiled, and their soft tissues were vaporized.


Archaeological dig

Residents of Herculaneum found in a "life-like" stance, rather than curled up, indicates near-instant death.

PLOS One

Imagine living next to Mount Vesuvius in the 1st century, four miles away in the ancient town of Herculaneum. And imagine not knowing that the volcano was about to erupt. What archaeologists are currently trying to piece together now is what happened next.

Hint: It's not pretty. The possible blessing for residents of the town, however, is that what happened was quick — quicker than being cremated, by far.

The seaside chambers

First Phase (Surge 1)

PLOS One

Vesuvius erupts about every 2000 years. When such a volcano erupts, there are at least two phases:

  1. The initial fallout phase, called the pumice air-fall phase, was dispersed 70 km (about 44 miles). This is what buried Pompeii.
  2. The "pyroclastic surges and flows" phase is next, which involves rapid, gravity-driven currents of hot gases mixed with volcanic ash, generated by the collapse of the eruptive column.

From what has been found in the archaeological exploration, the second phase is what the residents of Herculaneum found in this gathering endured, as well as the surviving residents of the initial phase in Pompeii. This particular set of 300 human remains were found in 12 seaside chambers, where undoubtedly they sought shelter after seeing the initial eruption.

However, unbeknownst to the asylum seekers, the temperatures in the ash/hot gas currents can reach from 200–300 degrees °C to a whopping 500 degrees °C. What archaeologists found upon unearthing the victims were all direct evidence that they died almost instantly, rather than over time as previously theorized.

And — here's where it gets rather macabre — the evidence strongly indicates they died from their blood boiling, skulls fracturing (and even exploding from said blood boiling). Their bodily fluids and soft tissues, the researchers say, experienced a "rapid vaporization."

In their words, the remains they discovered "strongly suggest a widespread pattern of heat-induced hemorrhage, intracranial pressure increase and bursting, most likely to be the cause of instant death of the inhabitants in Herculaneum."

CT scans of shark intestines find Nikola Tesla’s one-way valve

Evolution proves to be just about as ingenious as Nikola Tesla

Credit: Gerald Schömbs / Unsplash
Surprising Science
  • For the first time, scientists developed 3D scans of shark intestines to learn how they digest what they eat.
  • The scans reveal an intestinal structure that looks awfully familiar — it looks like a Tesla valve.
  • The structure may allow sharks to better survive long breaks between feasts.
Keep reading Show less

American imperialism: fat-shaming Uncle Sam

Opponents of 19th-century American imperialism were not above body-shaming the personification of the U.S. government.

Uncle Sam's growth from toddler to giant of the world stage.

Credit: Bill of Rights Institute / Public domain
Strange Maps
  • In the years before 1900, the United States was experiencing a spectacular spurt of growth.
  • Not everyone approved: many feared continued expansionism would lead to American imperialism.
  • To illustrate the threat, Uncle Sam was depicted as dangerously or comically fat.
Keep reading Show less

Why information is central to physics and the universe itself

Information may not seem like something physical, yet it has become a central concern for physicists. A wonderful new book explores the importance of the "dataome" for the physical, biological, and human worlds.

Credit: agsandrew via Adobe Stock
13-8
  • The most important current topic in physics relates to a subject that hardly seems physical at all — information, which is central to thermodynamics and perhaps the universe itself.
  • The "dataome" is the way human beings have been externalizing information about ourselves and the world since we first began making paintings on cave walls.
  • The dataome is vast and growing everyday, sucking up an ever increasing share of the energy humans produce.
Keep reading Show less
Surprising Science

Dogs know when people are lying

A new study tested to what extent dogs can sense human deception.

Quantcast