The moon is shrinking — also, moonquakes are a thing
A new NASA report shakes up lunar geology.
- The moon is indeed shrinking. It has been since it formed.
- The shrinking is producing thousands of fault lines.
- Archived seismometer data from Apollo missions show moonquakes.
If you're looking up at a bright full moon and notice it's getting smaller, you're so slightly right that you're closer to being wrong. The moon is shrinking, but only very slowly, and it always has been since its formation, from which it's still cooling down. You've never seen it when it wasn't shrinking.
NASA has just announced, though, that this gradual reduction in size is producing moonquakes. The seemingly lifeless satellite is actually pretty dynamic from a geological point of view, a surprise to the scientific community. Blame shrinkage. Also the pull of earth's gravity.
The research was published May 13 in Nature Geoscience.
In the beginning, revised
Image source: SueC/Shutterstock
We don't really know how the moon formed, but there are suspicions, and the leading theory is that a Mars-sized object slammed into the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. The object itself, as well as debris from Earth, was ejected into Earth orbit as a molten satellite that's been slowly cooling ever since.
It took about 100 million years for it to crystallize into rocks, with the least dense of them floating upward in the slurry to form the moon's crust and surface. As of this writing, NASA's About the moon webpage says that, "Since the ancient time of volcanism, the arid, lifeless Moon has remained nearly unchanged." They'll likely update that soon — we know now that's it's not true.
Spotted from orbit
Image source: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University/Smithsonian
Signs of movement: Arrows show boulder fields, patches of relatively high bright soil or regolith.
Orbiting the moon as you read this is NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which was launched in June 2009 and has been taking pictures of the Moon's surface since it arrived in lunar orbit a year and four days later.
Captured by its high-resolution 0.5–2m per pixel cameras were a "vast network" of scarps that indicated a variety of interactions between thrust faults. In addition, the faults' crisp appearance, as well as other characteristics, suggest that they're pretty young in geological terms, less than 50 million years old. Though their existence was already known — Apollo 17's Astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt had to zig-zag their rover up and over the cliff face of one — the sheer number of faults, in the thousands, and their complexity was only made clear by LRO.
NASA compares the faults to the wrinkles formed on a grape's skin as it shrinks into a raisin. The main difference is that where a raisin's skin is soft and pliable, the Moon's crust is brittle and thus fractures and cracks as the Moon continues to cool and shrink at a rate of about 150 feet every few hundred million years.
Digging through Apollo data
Image source: NASA
Buzz Aldrin deploys a seismometer during the Apollo 11 mission.
To gain a fuller understanding of their origin, a team of scientists led by Thomas Watters, senior scientist in the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum took a closer look at data from four seismometers left on the moon by the Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions at their landing sites. While the Apollo 11 device was active only for about three weeks, the others recorded 28 shallow moonquakes from 1969 to 1977, and there's no reason to think the quakes have stopped since then.
Watters' team developed an algorithm for identifying the quake epicenters from the seismometers' data, and found that at least eight of them were within 30 kilometers of a visible scarps, lending support to the idea that movement of those scarps created the moonquakes. "We think it's very likely that these eight quakes were produced by faults slipping as stress built up when the lunar crust was compressed by global contraction and tidal forces," Watters summarizes, "indicating that the Apollo seismometers recorded the shrinking moon and the moon is still tectonically active." These were not all subtle temblors, either. "Some of these quakes can be fairly strong, around five on the Richter scale."
The algorithm also revealed that six of the eight quakes occurred when the Earth's tidal pull on the Moon was at its maximum, when the moon was at its farthest point, or apogee, from Earth. It's likely that at these times the Moon's crust is under exceptional stress, and so it's more likely for fault slips to occur.
An interesting sidetone is that China's Chang'e-4 dark-side lunar mission may have just found bits of mantle rock on the moon's surface, perhaps a sign of continued geological movement of the Moon's crust and mantle.
Lee Lincoln Scarp at the Apollo 17 Landing Site
Old data, new insight
As LRO Project Scientist John Keller of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland points out, "It's really remarkable to see how data from nearly 50 years ago and from the LRO mission has been combined to advance our understanding of the moon, while suggesting where future missions intent on studying the Moon's interior processes should go."
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What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Great ideas in philosophy often come in dense packages. Then there is where the work of Marcus Aurelius.
- Meditations is a collection of the philosophical ideas of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Written as a series of notes to himself, the book is much more readable than the dry philosophy most people are used to.
- The advice he gave to himself 2,000 years ago is increasingly applicable in our hectic, stressed-out lives.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
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