from the world's big
Behold, close-ups of the sand from around the cosmos
Think you've seen sand? You haven't seen sand.
- Microscopic photography exposes the beauty and strangeness of sand.
- Water wave action produces a startling variety of sand grains.
- That stuff between your toes is a lot more interesting than you might think.
We typically refer to grains of sand as uncountable tiny bits of rock whose most interesting characteristic is just how many of them there are. Like stars in the sky. We do them a disservice. Even the Oxford Dictionary defines them nearly as "A loose granular substance, typically pale yellowish brown…"
Scientist, author, teacher and photographer Gary Greenberg knows better. This doctor of developmental biology invents and patents high-definition, three-dimensional light microscopes. He's the founder of Edge-3D, for which he develops innovative 3D imaging devices — some of his technology is currently in use on the International Space Station.
Since 2011, Greenberg's been photographing everyday objects whose beauty and complexity is revealed only when they're magnified. His photographs of sand reveal a world of fascinating shapes and colors which we had no idea existed. High-quality prints of his images are available for sale on his website.
Greenberg explains what we see in each of photo. (We've edited his text slightly.)
This image is a handful of sand grains selected from a beach in Maui and arranged onto a black background. The colors and shapes of these tiny grains of sand are surprisingly different and astonishingly beautiful, each with its own individual character.
#2. Hamoa sponge spicule
Elegant beauty in a sponge spicule fragment from a glassy sponge found in sand from Hamoa Beach, Maui, Hawaii.
3. Okinawa, Japan puffy stars
These are star-shaped, calcium carbonate shells, or "tests," produced by tiny forams, single-celled ocean organisms. Cute sand grains?
4. Lunar sand
Apollo 17 astronauts discovered this "orange soil" on the rim of Shorty Crater in the Taurus Littrow Valley. These tiny, glassy orange spherules originate from a fire-fountain volcano that erupted over 3.8 billion years ago.
5. Plum Island garnet grains
These come from Plum Island, Rowley, Massachusetts, the northernmost barrier island in the United States. Its beach gets its pink color from garnets in the sand. Denser than most other sand grains, they get left behind as the waves sweep less dense material away.
6. Great Bahama Bank ooids
There are three areas in the world where ooids are created from tidal currents that keep mineral grains in constant motion. This results in carbonate precipitation forming around them. One of these locations is the Great Bahama Bank — these come from Joulter Cays, located about ten miles north of Andros Island in the Bahamas.
7. Corsican sand mask
A single grain of sand from the island of Corsica, France, looks like a mask. Or an Angry Birds pig snout.
8. Sand from South Point, Hawaii
These grains are from South Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. The translucent green grains are olivine — at South Point on Mauna Loa's southwest rift, the pounding surf erodes a forty-nine-thousand-year-old volcanic cinder cone made of olivine. The deep-red grain (upper left) is volcanic rock.
9. A tiny sapphire in Japanese sand
There appears to be sapphire crystal in this sand from Japan. Who knows what you'll find under your feet if you look?
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.