Actors show altered brain activity when in character, study finds
A recent study used MRIs to study the changes in brain activity when trained method actors responded to questions in and out of character.
- Method actors employ an intensive approach to acting that involves staying in character for long periods of time.
- The recent study asked trained method actors a variety of hypothetical questions under four different scenarios.
- The results showed changes in brain activity depending on whether actors were in and out of character, including alterations to activity in the prefontal cortex — a key region in terms of self-awareness.
Method actors famously blur the lines between their everyday personalities and the characters they inhabit. Al Pacino, for instance, suffered an eye injury after stumbling into a bush while portraying a blind veteran during the filming of Scent of a Woman.
"You don't focus your eyes. And what happens is, you just go into a state," the actor once told Larry King.
So, what's happening in actors' brains when they inhabit a character? New research — published in Royal Society Open Science on March 13 — explored that question by using MRIs to observe changes in method actors' brain activity when they were asked to respond to hypothetical scenarios. All of the actors had been trained to portray either Romeo or Juliet, and had "no history of neurological disorders, psychiatric illness, alcohol or substance abuse, and were not taking psychotropic medications."
The actors were asked to think about how they'd respond to various questions related to intentions and motivations — such as "Would you go to a party you were not invited to?" and "Would you tell your parents if you fell in love?" — under four different scenarios:
- From their own perspective
- From a friend's perspective (of the same gender)
- From Romeo or Juliet's perspective
- From their own perspective, but with a different accent
The actors showed decreased brain activity in part of the prefrontal cortex (a critical region in terms of self-awareness) when asked to consider the questions from a third-person perspective — that of a friend. Interestingly, the participants showed similar activity changes when they inhabited the role of Romeo or Juliet.
"This might suggest that acting, as neurocognitive phenomenon, is a suppression of self-processing," the researchers wrote.
Another interesting finding among the actors was that merely adopting a different accent — but still responding to questions as themselves — also seemed to cause changes in the prefrontal cortex.
"Perhaps the most surprising finding of the study was that the British accent condition — during which the participants were instructed to maintain their self-identity — showed a similar deactivation pattern vis-à-vis the self that acting did, suggesting that gestural mimicry of even a completely unspecified other has an impact on brain areas involved in self-processing," the researchers wrote. "This supports the contention of acting theorists that gestural and psychological approaches might be related paths towards achieving the same goal, namely the embodied portrayal of a character. It also lends support to theories of embodied cognition, which argue that a change in gestural expression can influence the way that people think and the emotions that they feel."
Does this mean that acting is all about suppressing the self and becoming a wholly different persona? Maybe not, according to Professor Philip Davis, the director of the Centre for Research into Reading, Literature and Society at the University of Liverpool.
"This [research] suggests you cut off self, and you do something else — you deactivate self," he told The Guardian. "But actually, [actors] also use parts of self that they otherwise wouldn't use."
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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