from the world's big
Near-impossibly massive neutron star detected
Astronomers have recently discovered the most massive neutron star to date, nearly at the theoretical limit for such stars. But it's only about the size of a small city.
- Researchers using the Green Bank Telescope recently discovered a star dubbed J0740+6620, a neutron star that's about as massive as they get.
- Neutron stars are unique, leftover cores of more massive stars. They're so dense that they're almost entirely composed of neutrons, which makes for some very strange physics.
- In J0740+6620's case, the astronomers were quite lucky: This star exhibited two phenomena that made it easier to spot and study. Examining stars such as this one bring us that much closer to understanding some of the most extreme physics in our universe.
Outside of black holes, neutron stars are the densest objects in our universe, and the neutron star recently discovered by astronomers using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) clocks in at the densest ever measured, approaching the theoretical density limit for such stars. J0740+6620, as the star is called, contains 2.17 times the mass of the Sun. But if you were to run a marathon, you'd have already traveled farther than the diameter of this neutron star, which is only 30 km across.
"Neutron stars are as mysterious as they are fascinating," said Thankful Cromartie, the principal author of the paper describing the new star. "These city-sized objects are essentially ginormous atomic nuclei. They are so massive that their interiors take on weird properties."
What are neutron stars?
As stars age and die, their final state depends on how massive they were. To understand how neutron stars form from these dying stars, we'll need to understand how white dwarfs form first. Most stars (97 percent) will eventually become white dwarfs, the next densest kind of star after a neutron star, because of a kind of built-in cosmic stop sign. Simply put, white dwarves are so dense that the atomic bonds of their material have broken up, transforming them into a plasma of atomic nuclei and electrons. But it's difficult to get much denser than this; electrons do not want to be in the same state as one another and will resist being compressed to the point where this would occur. Physicists call this electron degeneracy pressure.
Stars that start off with less than 10 solar masses tend to become white dwarfs, which themselves have an upper limit of about 1.44 solar masses. But if you start off with a denser star, one with 10 to 29 solar masses, you could produce a neutron star. At this point, the density of the star is so great that it overcomes electron degeneracy pressure. The electrons still don't want to occupy the same state, so instead they are forced to combine with protons, forming neutrons as a result and emitting neutrinos. Thus, neutron stars are — appropriately enough — composed almost entirely of neutrons.
Neutron stars are held up by neutron degeneracy pressure, which works similarly to how electron degeneracy holds up white dwarfs. But also like white dwarfs, there is an upper limit to how much pressure neutron stars can take.
"Neutron stars have this tipping point where their interior densities get so extreme that the force of gravity overwhelms even the ability of neutrons to resist further collapse," said Scott Ransom, a co-author of the paper. That's why J0740+6620 appears to be as large as a neutron star can get: just about 2.17 solar masses. If J0740+6620 had more mass, it would have collapsed into a black hole. "Each 'most massive' neutron star we find," continued Ransom, "brings us closer to identifying that tipping point and helping us to understand the physics of matter at these mind-boggling densities."
What makes J0740+6620 special?
Animation: BSaxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF
An artist's animation of the Shapiro delay. Pulsars shoot out beams of radio waves from their poles and spin rapidly. When they are in a binary system, we can measure the effect of their sister star's gravity (in this case a white dwarf) on the radio waves, which enables us to estimate the sister star's mass and, in turn, the pulsar's mass.
J0740+6620 also had another quality that it made it a lucky find for researchers. The star was actually in a binary system with a companion white dwarf. These two facts meant that the researchers were able to measure the new star's mass through something called the "Shapiro Delay."
As J0740+6620's white dwarf companion passed in front of the neutron star's beam of radio waves, astronomers on Earth could detect a slight delay in the incoming radio waves. This is because the white dwarf's gravity warped space around it, forcing the passing radio waves to travel a touch farther than normal. By measuring this, the astronomers were able to calculate the white dwarf's mass. Knowing the mass of one planet in a binary system makes it simple to calculate the mass of the partner; thus, J0740+6620 was discovered to be the most massive neutron star to date.
- Amazing astronomy: How neutron stars create ripples in space-time ›
- Humans and Supernova-Born Neutron Stars Have Similar ... ›
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.