from the world's big
World’s first malaria vaccine can save thousands of children lives
One of the world's deadliest diseases, malaria takes the life of a child every two minutes.
- Malaria, one of the world's deadliest diseases, kills 435,000 people a year, most of them children in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Three African countries are set to receive the world's first malaria vaccine this week as part of a WHO pilot program.
- The vaccine has the potential to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of children worldwide.
The 20th century has seen some truly profound advances in human medicine. We now produce clean water and uncontaminated food at unprecedented levels. We've eradicated smallpox and rinderpest — the former having been one of history's deadliest diseases, the latter having caused widespread, depopulating famine — and we're close to eradicating deadly, debilitating diseases such as polio, yaws, and rabies.
But some medical leaps have been more elusive. One of the most devastating has been our inability to find a cure for malaria.
Malaria is among the world's deadliest diseases. It kills 435,000 people worldwide every year, the vast majority in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ninety percent of all malaria-related deaths occur in Africa, and children under the age of five are its most likely victims. In fact, every tenth child death in 2016 was the result of malaria.
But that tragic paradigm may be changing soon. The World Health Organization has launched a pilot program for the world's first malaria vaccine, a change that's been three decades in the making.
Countering the malaria epidemic
Image source: CDC / Wikimedia Commons
The malaria vaccine pilot program will launch in Malawi this week. In 2016, the country suffered 45 malaria-related deaths per 100,000 people. In the coming weeks, Ghana and Kenya will introduce the vaccine as well. In 2016, these countries suffered 69 and 11 deaths per 100,000 respectively.
The vaccine, called RTS,S, will be administered in a regimen of four doses. The first three will be given to children between five and nine months of age. The final dose will be provided around the children's second birthday. The program aims to vaccinate around 360,000 children per year across the three countries. It will focus on areas with moderate-to-high malaria transmission rates in the hopes of maximizing the impact.
"Malaria is a constant threat in the African communities where this vaccine will be given. The poorest children suffer the most and are at highest risk of death," Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa, said in a statement. "We know the power of vaccines to prevent killer diseases and reach children, including those who may not have immediate access to the doctors, nurses and health facilities they need to save them when severe illness comes."
WHO's press statement notes that the pilot program is a global partnership. It has brought together a range of in-country and international partners to coordinate with the ministries of health in the three pilot countries. GSK, the vaccine's developer and manufacturer, will donate 10 million doses.
"This is a day to celebrate as we begin to learn more about what this tool can do to change the trajectory of malaria through childhood vaccination," Moeti added.
Difficulties in eradicating malaria
However, the vaccine is not a silver bullet aimed at ending the malaria epidemic. RTS,S does not have a 100 percent success rate, offering only partial protection. In clinical trials, it prevented approximately 4 in 10 malaria cases (3 in 10 for life-threatening malaria).
As such, WHO is presenting the vaccine as a "complementary malaria control tool." The vaccine paired and supported by other preventative measures, including bed nets, indoor insecticides, and antimalarial treatments.
"It's a difficult disease to deal with. The tools we have are modestly effective but drugs and insecticides wear out — after 10, 20 years mosquitoes become resistant. There's a real concern that in 2020s, [cases] are going to jump back up again," said Adrian Hill, a professor of human genetics and director of the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford, told CNN.
Malaria has proven difficult to eradicate because of its nature. The disease is caused by a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Its life cycle is split between a sexual stage in its mosquito hosts and an asexual stage in human hosts. When a mosquito bites an infected human, it contracts the disease from that person's red blood cells.
When it bites another person, the mosquito transmits the disease to a new host. The infected patient develops a fever, chills, headaches, and other flu-like symptoms. If untreated, it can develop into severe malaria, where the symptoms can manifest into anemia, organ failure, and neurological abnormalities. Any mosquito that bites this person has the chance to then pass on the disease further.
The difficulty in preventing mosquito bites, the insect's growing resistance to insecticides, and changes the parasite undergoes during its life cycle, all contribute the difficulties on controlling and containing malaria in the world's poorest countries.
Developing sustainable change
Graph showing the percentage of global malaria deaths per world region. Africa accounts for 90 percent of deaths resulting from the disease. (Source: Our World in Data)
WHO's Sustainable Development Goals are 17 directives comprising 169 targets. The ultimate aim is to advance peace and prosperity for all people.
The program's third directive is to ensure health and well-being for all people of all ages. Among its targets are the end of the AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria epidemics by 2030 and the reduction of mortality for children under 5 to as few as 25 per 1,000 live births worldwide.
Despite the difficulties still ahead, any substantial reduction in malaria deaths is a welcome change and a significant step in achieving this goal.
Thanks to this vaccine, hundreds of thousands of children will likely avoid a crippling, painful death. Communities in some of the world's poorest regions will be given a chance to better stabilize and grow. And the pilot may help scientist develop better strategies for future endeavors.
The vaccine's development came at an auspicious moment, too. Malaria cases began to rise in 2017, after nearly two decades of decline.
"The malaria vaccine is an exciting innovation that complements the global health community's efforts to end the malaria epidemic," Lelio Marmora, executive director of Unitaid, said. "It is also a shining example of the kind of inter-agency coordination that we need. We look forward to learning how the vaccine can be integrated for greatest impact into our work."
Join us at 2 pm ET tomorrow!
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.