Gamma-ray space telescope study may have spotted dark matter
New study of gamma rays and gravitational lensing points to the possible presence of dark matter.
- Analyzing data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, researchers find hints of dark matter.
- The scientists looked to spot a correlation between gravitational lensing and gamma rays.
- Future release of data can pinpoint whether the dark matter is really responsible for observed effects.
By comparing data derived from gravitational lensing and gamma ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, a study showed that certain regions of the sky emit more gamma rays. While the main cause of this phenomenon may be supermassive black holes, the researchers think that some of the emissions may be because of dark matter. It's a so-far-undetected substance that supposedly takes up as much as 27% of all matter in the Universe, with dark energy taking up another 68% (as per NASA).
The study builds on nine years of gamma-ray data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) that's part of the Fermi space observatory, and was carried out by Simone Ammazzalorso at the University of Turin in Italy, Daniel Gruen at Stanford University in California, and colleagues.
The data from the telescope previously pinpointed many individual gamma-ray sources, like the remains of supernova explosions or jets of ionized matter called blazars created from accretion of material by supermassive black holes.
While many sources were located, some of the radiation that was detected by the LAT could not be traced. To investigate this, Ammazzalorso and the team of researchers compared gamma-ray background data with the first-year data from the Dark Energy Survey, carried out by the Dark Energy Camera on the Victor Blanco 4-m Telescope in Chile, which took optical snapshots of 40 million galaxies.
The research team was trying to figure out if there's a correlation between the location of gravitational lenses and gamma ray photons. Gravitational lensing measures the distribution of the Universe's matter by utilizing an effect predicted by Einstein. The effect takes place when light traveling to Earth from a distant object is distorted by the gravitational pull of the matter on the way.
The Difference Between Quasars, Blazars, Pulsars and Radio Galaxies
Comparing two sets of data, the scientists realized that regions of the sky with more matter were also responsible for emitting more gamma rays. On the flip side, the regions that were less dense produced fewer gamma rays.
Specifically, the researchers observed this relationship holding at at high energies and small angular scales, as reports Physics World. Blazars were likely the cause of these kinds of gamma ray emissions, according to the physicists.
The scientists spotted a weaker version of this kind of emission at larger angular scales. This other source of the gamma rays was likely dark matter, thinks Francesca Calore, an astroparticle physicist at Annecy-le-Vieux Theoretical Physics Lab in France, who wrote a commentary for the new paper.
"This result is exciting as it marks one of the few hints at the existence of dark matter via indirect detection methods, and it opens up new possibilities for probing dark matter particle models," said Calore.
She warned that there is still a chance the noticed correlation could be due to blazars, which are still not completely understood.
An overlap of gravitational lenses and gamma-ray signals could indicate the presence of dark matter.
Credit: D. Gruen/SLAC/Stanford; C. Chang/University of Chicago; A. Drlica-Wagner/Fermilab
New data that will be released from the Dark Energy Survey, including 100 million galaxies, as well as other upcoming sky research like the Legacy Survey of Space and Time at the Vera Rubin Observatory in Chile should shed more light on the matter.
"With deeper redshift coverage and a better angular resolution, future instruments will enable scientists to better understand the sources behind the universe's gamma-ray glow and, potentially, uncover the nature of dark matter," Calore stated.
Check out the new study in Physical Review Letters.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
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