from the world's big
Eat a 'flexitarian' diet to help stop climate change
Whether or not there are tropical islands in 50 years might depend on whether or not we can eat fewer hamburgers.
- Results from recent research suggest we have roughly 12 years to keep global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. If we can't, then the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere will have compounding feedback loops that progressively warm the planet up further.
- One of the biggest culprits in warming the planet is the production of beef and sheep meat.
- Anybody could help prevent climate change by consuming less beef and sheep, or by cutting them out entirely.
Isn't it nice when complicated problems have simple solutions? Take, for example, our diets. There's a confoundingly large amount of research on what goes into a healthy diet, and fads such as the Atkins, keto, and paleo diets all claim to be the easiest, best, and one true way to lose weight and stay healthy. But really, all of the critical information one needs to stay healthy was summed up in seven words by the journalist Michael Pollan: "Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants."
Easy! Now you don't have to buy new diet books every five years. But those seven words might also be a simple answer to an even more complex problem: Climate change.
In October of 2018, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released an extremely gloomy report. In it, researchers wrote that humanity has just 12 short years to change our behavior in order to limit global warming to a tolerable — although still dangerous — 1.5 degrees Celsius. If we can't do that, we can say goodbye to coral reefs, and say hello to increasingly extreme weather events, sea level rises between 33 and hundreds of feet, and an equator too hot for most forms of life.
What can we do?
It may feel like an individual can't do too much to make a contribution. But fortunately, changing your diet is something everybody can do. Based on the report's findings, we can drastically cut emissions and pollution if we switch to "flexitarianism."
Flexitarianism is just a flexible form of vegetarianism. You don't have to give up meat, you just have to follow the last part of Michael Pollan's advice: For the most part, eat plants. If that doesn't seem feasible, we can still mostly eat meat so long as we take more care in what kind of meat we eat.
Rice, roots and tubers, and corn are among the least-polluting types of food. Dairy, sheep, and beef, however, are particularly bad polluters. World Resources Institute, 2018.
This graph shows the amount of greenhouse gases produced by different foods and the amount of land they take up. A cursory glance shows you what you need to know — beef and sheep meat production are resource intensive. In a CNN interview, researcher Marco Springmann from the University of Oxford explained,
"Beef is more than 100 times as emissions-intensive as legumes. […] This is because a cow needs, on average, 10 kilograms of feed, often from grains, to grow 1 kilogram of body weight, and that feed will have required water, land and fertilizer inputs to grow."
While digesting this resource-intensive feed, cows and sheep emit methane, a greenhouse gas that is 30 times as potent as carbon dioxide.
So, by either limiting how much beef and sheep they eat or cutting it out entirely, your average Joe can make sure there are still islands in the Caribbean for their kids to visit. Here's some flexitarian techniques that can help.
How to become a flexitarian
As the graph above showed, eating low-impact meats can make a big difference. Chicken, pork, and fish all contribute relatively minor amounts of greenhouse gases, and they're healthier than beef too.
For those who can't forgo a burger, try a beef-mushroom burger. Mushrooms retain water, have a meaty texture, and also pack that umami flavor you get from beef. Mixing mushrooms into the ground beef for a burger makes for an excellent combo that you may even enjoy more than a 100 percent beef burger. What's more, if just 30 percent of every burger sold in America was made of mushrooms, it would have the same impact as taking 2.3 million cars off the road, retain the equivalent of 2.6 million Americans' water consumption, and free up a portion of agricultural land larger than the state of Maryland.
There's also many alternative, beef-free burgers. Lab-grown beef, as we covered in early December, is just beginning to be served in restaurants. Moreover, companies such as Memphis Meats, SuperMeat, and Mosa Meats are currently selling lab-grown beef.
The brave can try eating bug burgers, too, which are typically made of a mix of chickpeas and mealworms. If you're feeling experimental, try to find an Ikea that's offering their mealworm-based "neatball" as an alternative to their classic Swedish meatballs. And of course, there are plenty of vegetarian burgers being sold. The Beyond Burger looks and tastes like a beef burger, and it even "bleeds" beetroot juice.
It would be great if we could convince industry to stop polluting, if we could switch our power-grid to an entirely renewable system, or if every car was electric. In time, we might actually manage to realize some of these goals, but they will require coordinated and persistent effort. In the meantime, going flexitarian might be the best thing any person can do to prevent climate change.
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.