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Adults who exercise are less inclined to be depressed, say Oxford and Yale researchers
But we already knew that, didn't we?
- American adults that exercise spend an average of 18 fewer days depressed every year.
- The large-scale study includes data from over 1.2 million Americans over a five-year period.
- The researchers note that too much exercise negatively impacts mental health.
Weekends in Los Angeles are dominated by physical activity: hiking, surfing, running, cycling, yoga. It's easy to affix stereotypes to this city's denizens, yet year-round sunshine affords residents every opportunity to stay fit. Many take advantage; staying active is part of the culture.
Not that everyone partakes, of course, but lack of opportunity can never be an excuse. Having grown up on the East Coast, I recall when outdoor physical activity was seasonal. You have to work harder during winter months to maintain the same fitness output. Those who endure the ravages of winter to make it to the gym seemed happier for it.
Such speculation was recently put to the test by researchers at Oxford and Yale. In a study of more than 1.2 million Americans, they discovered physical fitness is more important to your mental health than how much money you make. To be exact: exercisers are, on average, depressed 35 days a year; for non-active participants that number is 53 days.
Using data between 2011–2015 provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risks Surveillance System, researchers found that physically active adults self-report feeling depressed much less than couch potatoes. They point to the fact that exercise is correlated with numerous health benefits, including reduced risk of overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, obesity, stroke, and cancer.
If you feel good, your perspective tends to follow.
The brain-changing benefits of exercise | Wendy Suzuki
It's not only the diseases you avoid. Exercise is linked with improved musculoskeletal health and stress regulation. Studies centered on mental health have been a bit more ambiguous, though it has long been known that exercise helps curb anxiety and depression. For this study, researchers note that intervention has never been more needed considering that "depression is now the leading cause of global disability burden."
Reducing this burden is the main goal of this research. Thinking outside of the gym, they included 75 types of physical activity in the survey, including golf and gardening. They grouped "mindful exercises," such as yoga and tai chi together—a slightly strange decision, given that even those two disciplines leave distinct imprints on your nervous system. Still, the underlying goal is to better understand the difference between movement versus no movement. The former made a statistically significant impact.
While movement scores above money, the results were actually U-shaped. Three to five weekly sessions of thirty minutes to an hour appears to be the magic zone for achieving optimal mental health. Those working out three or more hours a day did not show better results than those who don't work out at all. There are likely two reasons for this: fatigue, which can drain your emotional output, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, a real problem in gyms. For example, some former addicts devote themselves to the "high" of working out, but really only move their addiction to another focus. Healthier, sure, but incessant anxiety about working out still follows.
Competitors warms up prior to the start of day one of the 2013 Australian National Surf Lifesaving Titles on April 17, 2013 in Gold Coast, Australia. Photo credit: Chris Hyde / Getty Images)
Team sports and cycling proved to be associated with the lowest mental health burden; the "mindful exercises" scored higher on the satisfaction index than walking.
The researchers note that while they believe these results are causal, more research is needed to prove direct links between specific exercises and mental health. Still, they feel comfortable stating the difference between working out and not working out is the same as "between individuals with a difference in household income of more than U.S. $25,000."
Point being: making more money is not necessarily the road to satisfaction. Regular movement is. This makes sense, given that for most of history, survival required physical output more than monetary exchange. There is measurable progress made in building shelter or hunting food; watching a number increase on a screen does not offer the same biological rewards, regardless of how happy we believe money will make us. Another recent study points out that the highest increase in depression and anxiety in recent years has been in the wealthiest demographic.
A rather old lesson, yet one we seem to keep forgetting. The chemistry of satisfaction and self-assurance relies on blood flow, not cash flow. Money is helpful. Movement is necessary.
- Green spaces for kids strengthen mental health for life - Big Think ›
- Exercise is good for your gut bacteria - Big Think ›
- How going for a run changes your brain - Big Think ›
- Yoga for depression: new study proves yoga lessens symptoms - Big Think ›
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.