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This might be the oldest creature to have ever lived on land
Scientists think an insect similar to the modern millipede crawled around Scotland 425 million years ago, making it the first-ever land-dweller.
- An ancient millipede-like creature living in Scotland may have been the first creature to live on land.
- A fossil representing Kampecaris obanensis was first discovered in 1899 on the Scottish isle of Kerrera. It's now been radiometrically dated to 425 million years ago.
- If the new research is correct about the age of the fossil, then scientists have been greatly underestimating how rapidly bugs and plants evolved to transition to life on land.
Scientists now believe that a fossilized relative of the modern millipede discovered in Scotland represents the earliest evidence of an animal living on land.
This terrestrial trailblazer that lived roughly 425 million years ago led the way for assemblages of land creatures that would come to dominate Earth.
A pioneering insect
One idea about how life began on Earth theorizes that it began in bodies of water. The cocktail of gases in the atmosphere mixed with lightning strikes is thought to have allowed monomers such as amino acids to spontaneously form in the oceans. This is known as the "primordial soup" theory. Out of this life-creating stew, bugs known as arthropods (which includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, and centipedes) are thought to have been some of the very first animals to venture onto land.
There's indirect soil-based evidence that other insects like soil worms crawled on land before the myriapods. However, the evidence may only indicate fleeting trips to the land above water. Myriapods, we know, made land their permanent home. The fossil of the ancient millipede-like creature, Kampecaris obanensis, was first discovered in 1899 on the Scottish isle of Kerrera. Now, it's been radiometrically dated to 425 million years ago. That would make these multi-legged critters the oldest land animal ever to have lived out of water. (At least, that we know of.) Their pioneering journey out of the sea set forth an explosive multiplication of new terrestrial life forms. Just 20 million years after Kampecaris made the move to land, the fossil record shows a plethora of bug deposits. Fast-forward another 20 million years and there is evidence that spiders, insects, and tall trees were thriving in ancient forest communities.
"It's a big jump from these tiny guys to very complex forest communities, and in the scheme of things, it didn't take that long," said geoscientist Michael Brookfield from the University of Texas and the University of Massachusetts in Boston, in a press release. "It seems to be a rapid radiation of evolution from these mountain valleys, down to the lowlands, and then worldwide after that."
We can't be sure that Kampecaris is actually the very first creature to have lived on land, as it's possible that there are older undiscovered fossils of both plants and bugs. However, no earlier findings have been made despite the fact that researchers have been investigating some of the most well-preserved fossils from this era. The team thinks this may indicate that they have reached the end of the land fossil record and that this ancient millipede represents the vital turning point at which life moved onto land.
According to this new study, Kampecaris is about 75 million years younger than the age other scientists have estimated the oldest millipede to be using a technique known as molecular clock dating, which is based on DNA's mutation rate. Similarly, fossils of stemmed plants in Scotland have also been evaluated as being roughly 75 million years younger than researchers once thought. So, if this ancient critter really was the first bug to blaze the trail onto Earth, then scientists have been greatly underestimating how rapidly bugs and plants evolved to transition to life on land.
"Who is right, us or them?" study co-author Elizabeth Catlos said. "We're setting up testable hypotheses – and this is where we are at in the research right now."
Javier Fernández Sánchez / Getty Images
Despite the potentially huge evolutionary significance of Kampecaris, this was the first study to address the fossil's age. One reason for that could be the challenge of extracting zircons (a microscopic mineral necessary to accurately date fossils) from the ashy rock sediment in which the fossil was preserved. Extraction requires impeccable vision and a flawlessly steady hand, as the zircons can easily be flushed away by accident. There's almost no room to err.
One of the co-authors of the study, geoscientist Stephanie Suarez, has been mastering the technique for separating the zircon grain from sediment since her time as an undergraduate student.
"That kind of work trained me for the work that I do here in Houston," Suarez said. "It's delicate work."
As an undergrad, Suarez used the technique to find that a different millipede specimen that was once thought to be the oldest bug specimen was actually 14 million years younger than estimated. Her technique now passes the Oldest Bug To Walk The Earth title onto a new species; Kampecaris.The study was published in Historical Biology.
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Richard Feynman once asked a silly question. Two MIT students just answered it.
Here's a fun experiment to try. Go to your pantry and see if you have a box of spaghetti. If you do, take out a noodle. Grab both ends of it and bend it until it breaks in half. How many pieces did it break into? If you got two large pieces and at least one small piece you're not alone.
But science loves a good challenge<p>The mystery remained unsolved until 2005, when French scientists <a href="http://www.lmm.jussieu.fr/~audoly/" target="_blank">Basile Audoly</a> and <a href="http://www.lmm.jussieu.fr/~neukirch/" target="_blank">Sebastien Neukirch </a>won an <a href="https://www.improbable.com/ig/" target="_blank">Ig Nobel Prize</a>, an award given to scientists for real work which is of a less serious nature than the discoveries that win Nobel prizes, for finally determining why this happens. <a href="http://www.lmm.jussieu.fr/spaghetti/audoly_neukirch_fragmentation.pdf" target="_blank">Their paper describing the effect is wonderfully funny to read</a>, as it takes such a banal issue so seriously. </p><p>They demonstrated that when a rod is bent past a certain point, such as when spaghetti is snapped in half by bending it at the ends, a "snapback effect" is created. This causes energy to reverberate from the initial break to other parts of the rod, often leading to a second break elsewhere.</p><p>While this settled the issue of <em>why </em>spaghetti noodles break into three or more pieces, it didn't establish if they always had to break this way. The question of if the snapback could be regulated remained unsettled.</p>
Physicists, being themselves, immediately wanted to try and break pasta into two pieces using this info<p><a href="https://roheiss.wordpress.com/fun/" target="_blank">Ronald Heisser</a> and <a href="https://math.mit.edu/directory/profile.php?pid=1787" target="_blank">Vishal Patil</a>, two graduate students currently at Cornell and MIT respectively, read about Feynman's night of noodle snapping in class and were inspired to try and find what could be done to make sure the pasta always broke in two.</p><p><a href="http://news.mit.edu/2018/mit-mathematicians-solve-age-old-spaghetti-mystery-0813" target="_blank">By placing the noodles in a special machine</a> built for the task and recording the bending with a high-powered camera, the young scientists were able to observe in extreme detail exactly what each change in their snapping method did to the pasta. After breaking more than 500 noodles, they found the solution.</p>
The apparatus the MIT researchers built specifically for the task of snapping hundreds of spaghetti sticks.
(Courtesy of the researchers)
What possible application could this have?<p>The snapback effect is not limited to uncooked pasta noodles and can be applied to rods of all sorts. The discovery of how to cleanly break them in two could be applied to future engineering projects.</p><p>Likewise, knowing how things fragment and fail is always handy to know when you're trying to build things. Carbon Nanotubes, <a href="https://bigthink.com/ideafeed/carbon-nanotube-space-elevator" target="_self">super strong cylinders often hailed as the building material of the future</a>, are also rods which can be better understood thanks to this odd experiment.</p><p>Sometimes big discoveries can be inspired by silly questions. If it hadn't been for Richard Feynman bending noodles seventy years ago, we wouldn't know what we know now about how energy is dispersed through rods and how to control their fracturing. While not all silly questions will lead to such a significant discovery, they can all help us learn.</p>
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In a recent study, researchers examined how Christian nationalism is affecting the U.S. response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- A new study used survey data to examine the interplay between Christian nationalism and incautious behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The researchers defined Christian nationalism as "an ideology that idealizes and advocates a fusion of American civic life with a particular type of Christian identity and culture."
- The results showed that Christian nationalism was the leading predictor that Americans engaged in incautious behavior.
A pastor at the chapel of the St. Josef Hospital on April 1, 2020 in Bochum, German
Sascha Schuermann/Getty Images<p>Christian nationalists, in general, believe the U.S. and God's will are tied together, and they want the government to embody conservative Christian values and symbols. As such, they also believe the nation's fate depends on how closely it adheres to Christianity.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unsurprisingly then, in the midst of the COVID‐19 pandemic, conservative pastors prophesied God's protection over the nation, citing America's righteous support for President Trump and the prolife agenda," the researchers write.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Correspondingly, the link between Christian nationalism and God's influence on how COVID‐19 impacts America can be seen in proclamations about God's divine judgment for its immorality―with the logic being that God is using the pandemic to draw wayward America <em>back </em>to himself, which assumes the two belong together."</p><p>The logical conclusion to this kind of thinking: America can save itself not through cautionary measures, like mask-wearing, but through devotion to God. What's more, it stands to reason that Christian nationalists are less likely to trust the media and scientists, given that these sources are generally not concerned with promoting a conservative, religious view of the world.</p><p>(The researchers note that they're unaware of any research directly linking Christian nationalism to distrust of media sources, but that they're almost certain the two are connected.)</p>
Predicted values of Americans' frequency of incautious behaviors during the COVID‐19 pandemic across values of Christian nationalism
Perry et al.<p>In the new study, the researchers examined three waves of results from the Public and Discourse Ethics Survey. One wave of the survey was issued in May, and it asked respondents to rate how often they engaged in both incautious and precautionary behaviors.</p><p>Incautious behaviors included things like "ate inside a restaurant" and "went shopping for nonessential items," while precautionary behaviors included "washed my hands more often than typical" and "wore a mask in public."</p><p>To measure Christian nationalism, the researchers asked respondents to rate how strongly they agree with statements like "the federal government should advocate Christian values" and "the success of the United States is part of God's plan."</p><p>The results suggest that, compared to other groups, Christian nationalists are far less likely to wear masks, socially distance and take other precautionary measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Christian nationalism was the leading predictor that Americans engaged in incautious behavior during the pandemic, and the second leading predictor that Americans avoided taking precautionary measures."</p><p>But that's not to say that religious beliefs are causing Americans to reject mask-wearing or social distancing. In fact, when the study accounted for Christian nationalist beliefs, the results showed that Americans with high levels of religiosity were likely to take precautionary measures for COVID-19.</p>
Limitations<p>Still, the researchers note that they're theorizing about the connections between Christian nationalism and COVID-19 behaviors, not documenting them directly. What's more, they suggest that certain experiences — such as having a family member that contracts COVID-19 — might change a Christian nationalist's behaviors during the pandemic.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Limitations notwithstanding, the implications of this study are important for understanding Americans' curious inability to quickly implement informed and reasonable strategies to overcome the threat of COVID‐19, an inability that has likely cost thousands of lives," they write.</p>
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