Dogs mirror stress levels of their owners
The owner's personality was the most important factor in examining the stress-hormone relationship between pet and owner.
- A new study found that dogs and their owners show similar levels of the stress hormone cortisol over time.
- The dog-owner cortisol relationship seems to be related to the owner's personality, as measured by the Big 5 model.
- Ultimately, dog owners needn't worry that they're stressing out their pet; not all cortisol indicates "bad" stress."
Just how empathetic are dogs?
A new study published in Scientific Reports suggests that dogs mirror the stress levels of their owners. The study examined levels of cortisol — a stress hormone — as measured in hair samples taken from owners and their dogs: 25 border collies and 33 Shetland sheepdogs. Results showed a "significant interspecies correlations in long-term stress."
"This is the first time we've seen a long-term synchronization in stress levels between members of two different species," Lina Roth, an ethologist who led the work at Linköping University in Sweden, told The Guardian.
But surely other factors — how long dogs spent alone, whether they had a garden to play in, how much physical activity they got — also played a big role in stress levels, right? Not so much. What's more, the dog's own personality — as measured by an owner-answered questionnaire — didn't seem to have a significant effect on cortisol levels either.
What did matter was the owner's personality. After participants answered questions from the Big 5 personality inventory, the researchers found that the personality traits neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness were strongly correlated with owner-dog cortisol levels. Owners that were more conscientious and open had dogs with higher cortisol levels, but only in the winter. Meanwhile, neuroticism was most strongly correlated with dog cortisol levels — both in the winter and the summer.
However, only female dogs' cortisol levels increased when their owners scored high in neuroticism; male dogs with neuroticism-prone owners actually had lower cortisol levels.
Why? Possibly because neurotic owners tend to seek more comfort from their dogs, causing the pets to feel less stress.
"There is some indication that humans scoring high on neuroticism form a strong attachment bond to their dogs and that these individuals, to a greater extent than others, use their dog as a social supporter whilst also simultaneously functioning as a social supporter for their dog," the researchers wrote. "This, in turn, may lead to a positive modulation of the stress response for both parties."
Roth et al.
The researchers also compared two sets of dogs: those who compete in shows, and companion pets. The results showed a stronger correlation between the competition pets and owners, possibly because competitions foster a strong relationship between the two.
"Dogs are affected by their owners' distress and respond with consoling behaviours," James Burkett at Emory University, who wasn't involved in the study, told The Guardian. "We now know that dogs are also affected by their owners' personalities and stress levels. While this may be common sense for dog owners, empirical research is still catching up to our intuitions about animal empathy."
So, does this mean you should feel guilty about stressing your dog out if you share the personality traits of the owners in the study? Not at all. Roth told The Associated Press that cortisol doesn't always indicate negative stress — it could just be a dog getting excited before going on a walk. Additionally, she noted that researchers are still studying the relationship between owner-dog stress levels, and it's possible that dogs might hold some effect on owners' stress levels as well.Ultimately, her advice is simple: "Just be with your dog and have fun."
- Dogs owners feeling long-term stress can transfer it to their dogs ... ›
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What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
The 'People Map of the United States' zooms in on America's obsession with celebrity
- Replace city names with those of their most famous residents
- And you get a peculiar map of America's obsession with celebrity
- If you seek fame, become an actor, musician or athlete rather than a politician, entrepreneur or scientist
Chicagoland is Obamaland
Image: The Pudding
Chicagoland's celebrity constellation: dominated by Barack, but with plenty of room for the Belushis, Brandos and Capones of this world.
Seen from among the satellites, this map of the United States is populated by a remarkably diverse bunch of athletes, entertainers, entrepreneurs and other persons of repute (and disrepute).
The multitalented Dwayne Johnson, boxing legend Muhammad Ali and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs dominate the West Coast. Right down the middle, we find actors Chris Pratt and Jason Momoa, singer Elvis Presley and basketball player Shaquille O'Neal. The East Coast crew include wrestler John Cena, whistle-blower Edward Snowden, mass murderer Ted Bundy… and Dwayne Johnson, again.
The Rock pops up in both Hayward, CA and Southwest Ranches, FL, but he's not the only one to appear twice on the map. Wild West legend Wyatt Earp makes an appearance in both Deadwood, SD and Dodge City, KS.
How is that? This 'People's Map of the United States' replaces the names of cities with those of "their most Wikipedia'ed resident: people born in, lived in, or connected to a place."
‘Cincinnati, Birthplace of Charles Manson'
Image: The Pudding
Keys to the city, or lock 'em up and throw away the key? A city's most famous sons and daughters of a city aren't always the most favoured ones.
That definition allows people to appear in more than one locality. Dwayne Johnson was born in Hayward, has one of his houses in Southwest Ranches, and is famous enough to be the 'most Wikipedia'ed resident' for both localities.
Wyatt Earp was born in Monmouth, IL, but his reputation is closely associated with both Deadwood and Dodge City – although he's most famous for the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, which took place in Tombstone, AZ. And yes, if you zoom in on that town in southern Arizona, there's Mr Earp again.
The data for this map was collected via the Wikipedia API (application programming interface) from the English-language Wikipedia for the period from July 2015 to May 2019.
The thousands of 'Notable People' sections in Wikipedia entries for cities and other places in the U.S. were scrubbed for the person with the most pageviews. No distinction was made between places of birth, residence or death. As the developers note, "people can 'be from' multiple places".
Pageviews are an impartial indicator of interest – it doesn't matter whether your claim to fame is horrific or honorific. As a result, this map provides a non-judgmental overview of America's obsession with celebrity.
Royals and (other) mortals
Image: The Pudding
There's also a UK version of the People Map – filled with last names like Neeson, Sheeran, Darwin and Churchill – and a few first names of monarchs.
Celebrity, it is often argued, is our age's version of the Greek pantheon, populated by dozens of major gods and thousands of minor ones, each an example of behaviours to emulate or avoid. This constellation of stars, famous and infamous, is more than a map of names. It's a window into America's soul.
But don't let that put you off. Zooming in on the map is entertaining enough: celebrities floating around in the ether are suddenly tied down to a pedestrian level, and to real geography. And it's fun to see the famous and the infamous rub shoulders, as it were.
Barack Obama owns Chicago, but the suburbs to the west of the city are dotted with a panoply of personalities, ranging from the criminal (Al Capone, Cicero) and the musical (John Prine, Maywood) to figures literary (Jonathan Franzen, Western Springs) and painterly (Ivan Albright, Warrenville), actorial (Harrison Ford, Park Ridge) and political (Eugene V. Debs, Elmhurst).
Freaks and angels
The People Map of the U.S. was inspired by the U.S.A. Song Map, substituting song titles for place names.
It would be interesting to compare 'the most Wikipedia'ed' sons and daughters of America's cities with the ones advertised at the city limits. When you're entering Aberdeen, WA, a sign invites you to 'come as you are', in homage to its most famous son, Kurt Cobain. It's a safe bet that Indian Hill, OH will make sure you know Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon, was one of theirs. But it's highly unlikely that Cincinnati, a bit further south, will make any noise about Charles Manson, local boy done bad.
Inevitably, the map also reveals some bitterly ironic neighbours, such as Ishi, the last of the Yahi tribe, captured near Oroville, CA. He died in 1916 as "the last wild Indian in North America". The most 'pageviewed' resident of nearby Colusa, CA is Byron de la Beckwith, Jr., the white supremacist convicted for the murder of Civil Rights activist Medgar Evers.
As a sampling of America's interests, this map teaches that those aiming for fame would do better to become actors, musicians or athletes rather than politicians, entrepreneurs or scientists. But also that celebrity is not limited to the big city lights of LA or New York. Even in deepest Dakota or flattest Kansas, the footlights of fame will find you. Whether that's good or bad? The pageviews don't judge...
Average waiting time for hitchhikers in Ireland: Less than 30 minutes. In southern Spain: More than 90 minutes.
- A popular means of transportation from the 1920s to the 1980s, hitchhiking has since fallen in disrepute.
- However, as this map shows, thumbing a ride still occupies a thriving niche – if at great geographic variance.
- In some countries and areas, you'll be off the street in no time. In other places, it's much harder to thumb your way from A to B.
Even more intriguing is the reason: recognizing facial expressions.
- A new systematic review states that serotonergic hallucinogens help users recognize emotions in facial expressions.
- Sufferers of anxiety and depression often only read negative emotions in other people's faces, adding to their malaise.
- While more research is needed, psychedelics could prove to be a powerful agent in battling mental health disorders.
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