Self-Motivation
David Goggins
Former Navy Seal
Career Development
Bryan Cranston
Actor
Critical Thinking
Liv Boeree
International Poker Champion
Emotional Intelligence
Amaryllis Fox
Former CIA Clandestine Operative
Management
Chris Hadfield
Retired Canadian Astronaut & Author
Learn
from the world's big
thinkers
Start Learning

Famous fossil is not an Archaeopteryx feather after all

Lasers solve the mystery of the missing quill.

(Daniel Eskriidge/Shutterstock)
  • The famous fossilized feather found in the 1860s is from some unknown animal.
  • The fossil's missing quill has long kept its identity unknown.
  • We're just at the beginning of our awareness of feathered dinosaurs.

Some time in the early 1860s, at the Solnhofen Community Quarry located about halfway between Munich and Nuremburg in Germany, a fossilized feather was discovered in shale deposits. The first mention of it appeared in 1861, in letters from paleontologist Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer — who described its appearance on two facing slabs of stone — to the editor of the German journal "Jahrbuch für Mineralogie". von Meyer proposed the feather be named Archaeopteryx lithographica. Six weeks later, von Meyer again wrote to announce a second discovery: A nearly complete skeleton of a feathered dinosaur found in the same deposits. The closeness of the timing and location caused the two finds to be linked together, with the feather considered the singular piece of evidence — the holotype — of a bird-like dinosaur to be called Archaeopteryx. Now, a new analysis of the fossil using Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence (LSF) has revealed, nearly 160 years later, that the two actually had nothing to do with each other other than proximity. Nature's Scientific Reports published the surprising result.

The case of the missing quill

One of the obstacles to a thorough understanding of the fossil has been that the feather it depicts has no quill, or calamus. Analysis of the calamus would have allowed scientists to ascertain the source of the feather on the animal from which it came. Was it a large primary wing feather, a secondary feather from the smaller secondary wing, or a tail feather called a primary covert?

When the discovery of the feather became public in 1862, the feather was described as having a calamus, and von Meyer drew it with one. However, there's nothing there to the naked eye or when the fossil is viewed under x-ray fluorescence or with UV imaging.

Original drawing by von Meyer, top. Fossil under white light today, bottom

(Kaye, et al)

Enter Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence

A microscopic examination of the fossil revealed to the authors of the new paper, led by Thomas G. Kaye, that there had originally been a quill present, but that "past preparation had engraved around the outline of the feather and inadvertently prepared away the calamus at some unknown point in the past."

The LSF uses a high-powered laser to expose geochemical differences between the fossil and the stone background. The chemicals fluoresce with different colors. In the end, LSF was able to recover the geochemical halo left behind by the missing materials. The halo perfectly matched von Meyer's drawing, as well, providing even more confidence of its accuracy.

The feather is, in fact, a primary covert. But there's something else.

LSF image of feather fossil with calamus halo

(Kaye, et al)

The Archaeopteryx lithographica is not from an Archaeopteryx

In the years since the 1860s, other specimens of feathered dinosaurs have been found, including 11 or 12 specimens of Archaeopteryx, notably one residing in a Berlin museum. While the newly identified primary covert somewhat resembles the Berlin specimen's secondary feathering — its closest match among all existing Archaeopteryx specimens — they're clearly not the same.

Drawing of the 1860s feather superimposed over its closest match from the Berlin specimen

(Kay, et al)

So, whose feather is it?

While it could be that the fossil is of an Archaeopteryx feather not yet catalogued, the greater likelihood is that it belonged to some other, thus far undiscovered feathered dinosaur. The inevitable implication? There were more bird-like dinosaurs in the Jurassic than we realized.

The “new normal” paradox: What COVID-19 has revealed about higher education

Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?

Photo: Luis Robayo/AFP via Getty Images
Sponsored by Charles Koch Foundation
  • Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
  • It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
  • COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
Keep reading Show less

4 ways to promote neurogenesis in your brain

How can we promote the creation of new neurons - and why is it so important?

We can promote the development of new neurons well into adulthood - and here's why we should.

Image by vrx on Shutterstock
Mind & Brain
  • Neurogenesis, the birth of neurons from stem cells, happens mostly before we are born - as we are formed in the womb, we are generating most of what we need after birth.
  • After birth, neurogenesis is still possible in two parts of the brain: the olfactory bulb (which is responsible for our sense of smell) and the hippocampus (which is responsible for memory, spatial navigation, and emotional processing).
  • Research from the 1960s proves creating new neurons as adults is possible, and modern-day research explains how (and why) we should promote new neuron growth.
Keep reading Show less

Live on Tuesday | Personal finance in the COVID-19 era

Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.

How DNA revealed the woolly mammoth's fate – and what it teaches us today

Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.

Ethan Miller/Getty Images
Surprising Science

Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.

Keep reading Show less
Scroll down to load more…
Quantcast