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Can synthetic biology protect us from coronavirus? And the next one?
The National Institutes of Health hopes synthetic biology can engineer vaccines that outperform nature.
- The first coronavirus vaccines will enter Phase 2 testing soon but won't be ready for another 18 months.
- Synthetic biology may offer a "universal coronavirus vaccine" that can be quickly modified to combat future mutated forms.
- Despite promising lab tests, synthetic vaccines remain speculative; we'll need to live with COVID-19 during the interim.
The world was not prepared for coronavirus. Despite the clarion calls that were the SARS and MERS outbreaks and early warnings from doctors, governments had neither the policies nor equipment in place to impede COVID-19's spread from a Chinese animal market.
The United States' strategy was to impose a medical bubble of travel restrictions and mandatory quarantines. "We have contained this. I won't say airtight but pretty close to airtight," White House National Economic Council Director Larry Kudlow said last month—despite contrary warnings from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials.
At that time, there were a handful of known cases. As of March 11, more than 1,000 people across 38 states have tested positive for the disease.
For many hope lies in the development of a vaccine, but while the first vaccines should enter Phase 2 testing by summer, that leaves an efficacy-tested product months away. Anthony Fauci, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, estimates the first vaccines won't be ready for "a year to a year-and-a-half."
As companies hurry to test potential vaccines, the National Institute of Health (NIH) is hoping new bio-engineering techniques to help us restrain coronavirus—and its next mutation, too.
Engineering a solution
A synthetic biology research laboratory at NASA Ames.
As reported by Sharon Begley in STAT, NIH is looking toward synthetic biology for the next advancement in vaccination development. This research is funded, in part, by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's $100 million commitment to strengthening global "detection, isolation, and treatment efforts" directed at COVID-19.
In synthetic biology, scientists re-engineer organisms to sport new abilities or biological purposes. They do this by stitching together strands of DNA and inserting them into an organism's genome. This artisanal DNA can come from other organisms or be a completely original strand.
Scientists begin the process by engineering nanoparticles out of proteins. Using a computational algorithm, they experiment with a million variants to discover the optimal structure. This structure not only allows the nanoparticle to house the viral antigens, but arranges those antigens for maximal arousal of the body's immune response.
After lab-crafting DNA to code for the nanoparticle, the scientists place it in E. coli bacteria. Once the bacteria begin manufacturing the desired protein, it is extracted, purified, and studded with viral antigens.
"If tests in lab animals of the first such nanoparticle vaccine are any indication, it should be more potent than either old-fashioned viral vaccines like those for influenza or the viral antigens on their own (without the nanoparticle)," Begley writes.
According to Lynda Stuart, immunologist and physician who directs the Gates Foundation's vaccine research, synbio vaccines may have advantages beyond potency. The increased immune response could eliminate the need for adjuvants (additives used to boost said response). They could reduce the need for refrigeration, making deployment to poor countries easier. And they could be designed to house antigens from several viruses, making one vaccine capable of fighting multiple diseases.
The ability to take past viral designs and quickly retrofit them to new, mutated forms of a virus could also reduce the development time for new, necessary vaccines.
"We may need an approach that can get you millions and even billions of doses," Stuart told STAT.
Synbio vaccines are still in the preliminary phases, and more traditional vaccines won't be available for months. During the interim, the virus will continue to spread, and its novelty means we'll need to encounter it before our bodies can build immunity. Many will become sick, but few will develop serious illness.
As Nancy Messonnier, director for the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, notes in the video above, the disease affects older adults most seriously. The greatest risk is faced by people over the age of 80 and those with underlying health conditions.
Without a vaccine to curb its spread, it will be up to us to do what we can to maintain our health and prevent spreading the disease.
Wash your hands. Americans are awful when it comes to hand hygiene, but it's one of the best ways to prevent the spread of disease. Wet your hands with warm water, lather them with soap, and scrub them all over for 20 seconds. Rinse your hands, and finish with a paper towel or air dry.
Hand sanitizers can work, but they have to be rubbed in for 20 seconds and contain at least 60 percent alcohol. You should also sanitize frequent-contact surfaces like smartphone screens.
Stay home if you are sick. It's good advice in general as your fellow students and coworkers don't need you to share your lung grimes. But it's especially important to do so if you have coronavirus symptoms. If your symptoms become serious, contact a doctor for instructions and the next steps.
Limit potential exposure. If you are at higher risk, you'll want to avoid crowds as much as possible, especially in poorly ventilated places. You should also avoid non-essential plane travel.
Have supplies on hand. You don't need a doomsday prepper's supply, but make sure you have a two-week supply of the essentials on-hand in case you get sick and have to stay in. If you have an underlining medical condition, ensure you have enough medication on hand.
Face masks. If you are healthy, you likely do not need to wear a face mask for protection. The CDC advises face mask use for people who have COVID-19, are showing symptoms, and do so under the recommendation of a healthcare professional as it may prevent them from spreading the disease to others. Wearing a face mask needlessly limits the necessary supply available to health and care providers.
Stay informed. Visit the CDC's coronavirus website for situation updates and information on the virus. Don't rely on hearsay or social media to inform you about local conditions. Monitor your state and local health department websites instead for accurate, reliable information.
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Innovation in manufacturing has crawled since the 1950s. That's about to speed up.
Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.
- The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
- Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
SEAL training is the ultimate test of both mental and physical strength.
- The fact that U.S. Navy SEALs endure very rigorous training before entering the field is common knowledge, but just what happens at those facilities is less often discussed. In this video, former SEALs Brent Gleeson, David Goggins, and Eric Greitens (as well as authors Jesse Itzler and Jamie Wheal) talk about how the 18-month program is designed to build elite, disciplined operatives with immense mental toughness and resilience.
- Wheal dives into the cutting-edge technology and science that the navy uses to prepare these individuals. Itzler shares his experience meeting and briefly living with Goggins (who was also an Army Ranger) and the things he learned about pushing past perceived limits.
- Goggins dives into why you should leave your comfort zone, introduces the 40 percent rule, and explains why the biggest battle we all face is the one in our own minds. "Usually whatever's in front of you isn't as big as you make it out to be," says the SEAL turned motivational speaker. "We start to make these very small things enormous because we allow our minds to take control and go away from us. We have to regain control of our mind."
Is focusing solely on body mass index the best way for doctor to frame obesity?
- New guidelines published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal argue that obesity should be defined as a condition that involves high body mass index along with a corresponding physical or mental health condition.
- The guidelines note that classifying obesity by body mass index alone may lead to fat shaming or non-optimal treatments.
- The guidelines offer five steps for reframing the way doctors treat obesity.